APUSH - Ch. 20 (Foreign Policy 1865-1914)

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William Seward

Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia in 1867. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.

Napoleon III

Nephew of Napoleon I and emperor of the French from 1852 to 1871 (1808-1873). He helped Italy drive out Austria from parts of its land.

"new imperialism"

Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories

Alfred Thayer Mahan

Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy (wrote, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History)

Josiah Strong

author of Our Country, on Anglo-Saxon superiority; a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas

Pan American Conference

1889 - Meeting organized by James Blaine to establish closer ties b/n US and its neighbors. Representatives from many western hemisphere countries decided to create a permanent organization for international cooperation on trade and other issues.

James Blaine

Benjamin Harrison's secretary of state and played an important role in the Pan-American Conference. The charming and popular man was the Republican nominee for president in 1884 who lost to Grover Cleveland. His candidacy was hurt by charges of corruption with the railroads exposed in the Mulligan letters.

Richard Olney

Attorney General of the U.S., he obtained an active injunction that state union members couldn't stop the movement of trains. He moved troops in to stop the Pullman strike.

Venezuela Boundary dispute

An issue between Venezuela and the neighbouring territory, the British colony of Guiana. Fixed when Olney and Cleveland convinced Britain to arbitrate.

jingoism

fanatical patriotism

Valeriano Weyler

General sent by Spain to stop Cuban revolt, referred to as the "Butcher" because of harsh tactics "concentration camps, shooting civilian, ect.)

yellow journalism

Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

Spanish-American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

De Lôme Letter

Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.

the Maine

An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havanna crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.

Teller Amendment

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war

George Dewey

a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War

Theodore Roosevelt

Leader of Rough Riders, Vice President and very famous President, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

Rough Riders

volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War

Philippine annexation

A treaty ratified on Feb. 6, 1899 guaranteed this. The anti-imperialists fell just two votes short of defeating this treaty.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.

Anti-Imperialist League

objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire.

insular cases

Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.

Platt Amendment

1901 - Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble

John Hay

Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal

spheres of influence

areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)

Open Door policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

xenophobia

an irrational fear of foreigners or strangers

Boxer Rebellion

1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops

big-stick policy

Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

1901 - permission granted by Panama for the US to dig a canal; permitted by the British in order to make friends with US in hope of future support against Germany; negociated under Roosevelt ; greatly facilitated trade

Panama Canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)

George Goethals

United States army officer and engineer who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal (1858-1928)

William Gorgas

Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and Malaria from Panama so work on the Panama Canal could proceed

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Santo Domingo

the capital and largest city of the Dominican Republic

Russo-Japanese War

A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.

Treaty of Portsmouth

(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize).

gentleman's agreement

an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.

great white fleet

1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."

Root-Takahira Agreement

1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.

Algeciras Conference

1906 - International conference called to deal with the Moroccan question. French get Morocco, Germany gets nothing, isolated. Result is U.S, Britain, France, Russia see Germany as a threat.

William Howard Taft

27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.

dollar diplomacy

Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

Lodge Corollary

A corollary to the Monroe Doctrine proposed by Henry Cabot Lodge and ratified by the U.S. Senate in 1912 forbidding any foreign power or foreign interest of any kind to acquire sufficient territory in the Western Hemisphere so as to put that government in "practical power of control".

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

moral diplomacy

foreign policy proposed by President Wilson to condemn imperialism, spread democracy, and promote peace

Jones Act

1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.

Mexican Civil War

Fransisco Villa, a dictator, rose to power in Mexico. The USA Attempted and failed his capture.

Victoriano Huerta

He ruthlessly seized power in Mexico in 1913. President Wilson objected to his murderous methods and refused to extend diplomatic recognition to his government. He abdicated in 1914.

Tampico incident

In April 1914, some U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, Mexico. President Wilson used the incident to send U.S. troops into northern Mexico. His real intent was to unseat the Huerta government there. After the Niagara Falls Conference, Huerta abdicated and the confrontation ended.

ABC powers

The South American countries of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, which attempted to mediate a dispute between Mexico and the United States in 1914.

Pancho Villa

Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.

Venustiano Carranza

(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).

expeditionary force

name given to American troops sent to foreign countries

John J. Pershing

US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him

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