Election of 1860
Election of Abraham Lincoln, a Republican start Civil War.
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
New York Draft riots
July 1863 just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs. Also Anti-conscription violence that protested the unfair $300 draft evasion fee that made poor people have to fight the war
in 1862 the government issued a new paper currency know as greenbacks (B/C of color) helped northern economy by ensuring that people had money to spend. also helped pay 4 war for the north
National Banking System
(AL) , Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank. (North)
1862, Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land, improve it, for 5 years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25. Companies got better land.
volunteer that organized efforts to gather medicine and supplies for Union troops on the battlefield; her efforts formed the basis for the founding of the American Red Cross
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Abraham Lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slave owners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
this battle was considered the turning point of the Civil War because the Confederacy no longer had the ability to launch an offensive into Union territory.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time. He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
General William Tecumseh Sherman
In 1864, heavily relied on by Lincoln. Won brilliantly in Atlanta. Basically destroyed the South. In Sherman's March (to the Sea) he took 300-mile march to the sea from Atlanta, destroying everything in his path and freeing slaves. Also ravaged South Carolina. The South was not pleased. Total war.
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group.
included all of the Republicans and the war Democrats. It excluded the copperheads and peace Democrats. It was formed out of fear of the republican party losing control. It was responsible for nominating Lincoln.
April 9, 1865 where General Lee surrendered to General Grant. Sherman marched north. Lee headed southwest and hopes to go to New York. The Results: War is over after 4 years, Union preserved, and the slaves were free. Grant allowed the Confederates to keep their arms and return home.
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools. Mainly for freedmen to be integrated into society.
10% reconstruction plan
decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the US and pledged to abide by emancipation
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
Johnson's Plan of Reconstruction
plan of Reconstruction that was very similar to Lincoln's with the additional conditions: disenfranchisement of all former Confederate leaders and Confederates with more than $20,000 in taxable property
laws passed in the South just after the Civil War aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers
an agricultural system common after the Civil War where landless farmers worked the land of a landowner who also supplied a hosue, farming tools and animals, seed, and fertilizer in return for a share of the harvest
Civil Rights Bill
1866, A bill passed by Congress in March 1866 as a measure against the Black Codes to reinforce black rights to citizenship. It was vetoed by Johnson and was later passed as the 14th Amendment.
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
Provided for dividing states into military districts with military commanders to oversee voter registration that included adult African-American males for state conventions; state conventions to draft constitutions that provided for suffrage for black men; state legislatures to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery.In disagreement with President Johnson. Known as a Radical Republican, who believed in harsh punishments for the South.
Military Reconstruction Act
It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of Martial Law
Ratified 1870. One of the "Reconstruction Amendments". Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
"carpetbaggar" was the Northern term, A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person's ability to read and write - they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950's they still failed.
Johnson's impeachment trial
House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson on high crimes and misdemeanors and for attempting to undermine the Reconstruction program by removing four officials who supported Republicans (i.e. Stanton)