Chapter 13: Social Cognition and Moral Development

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social cognition

thinking about the perceptions, thoughts, emotions, motives and behaviors of self and other people

false belief task

understanding that people can hold incorrect beliefs that can influence behavior

theory of mind

people have mental states such as desires, beliefs and intentions and that these mental states guide or cause their behavior

joint attention

point to toys and look for companion to play with - 9 months

pretend play

understanding between pretense and reality - 1 and 2 years

imitation

mentally present actions and goals behind them - 1 year old

emotional standing

comforting a playmate who is crying or teasing a sibling - understanding that other people have emotions that can be influenced as good or bad - 2 years old

desire psychology

HENRY WELLMAN - toddlers talk about what they want and how they behave in terms of desires

belief desire psychology

certain actions will help them fulfill their desires - 4 years old

mirror neurons

neurons that are activated when we perform an action and when we observe someone else perform the same action

mental states

method parents use to positively develop theory of mind - "she thought you were done with your ice cream"

how do children younger then 7 years old describe themselves

physical terms rather then psychological terms

how do children older then age 7 describe themselves

psychological traits, descriptions suggest they can get below the surface

role taking skills

ability to adopt another person's perspective and understand their thoughts and feelings in relation to your own

Selman role taking abilities

develop in stage like manner
1. children age 3 to 6 are largely egocentric (others share same point of view)
2. age 8 to 10 two people can have different views
3. adolescence age 12 capable of mentally juggling multiple perspectives

nonsocial cognitive abilities

remembering readings, testing scientific hypotheses

morality

ability to distinguish right from wrong, to act on this distinction and to experience pride

affective/emotional morality

feelings that surround right or wrong actions and motivate moral thoughts

cognitive morality

how we conceptualize right and wrong and make decisions about how to behave - role taking

behavioral morality

how we behave when we experience the temptation to cheat

moral affect - psychoanalytic

PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY - positive and negative emotions related to matters of right and wrong

empathy

experiencing of another person's feelings

prosocial behavior

positive social acts that reflect a concern for the welfare of others - motived by empathy

moral reasoning - cognitive developmental

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY - thinking process involved in deciding whether an act is right or wrong

reciprocity

mutual give and take by both parties in a human relationship

Premoral period

PIAGET COGNITIVE - preschool years, children show little understanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings

Heteronomous morality

PIAGET COGNITIVE - age 6 to 10, taking rules seriously, judge rules as wrong based on amount of damage done

Autonomous Morality

PIAGET COGNITIVE - age 10 to 11, appreciate that rules are agreements between individuals and can be changed

Kohlberg's cognitive developmental theory of moral development is comprised of what

3 levels with 2 stages each

Kohlberg level 1

pre conventional morality - rules are external to self

kohlberg level 1 stage 1

punishment and obedience orientation - goodness or badness of act depends on consequence

kohlberg level 1 stage 2

instrumental hedonism - conforms to rules to gain rewards or satisfy personal needs

kohlberg level 2

conventional morality - internalized moral values and strives to obey the rules set by others to win approval

kohlberg level 2 stage 1

good boy or good girl morality - what is right = what pleases, helps or approved by others

kohlberg level 2 stage 2

authority and social order - what is right = what conforms to the rules of legitimate authorities

kohlberg level 3

post conventional morality - defines what is right in terms of broad principles of justice

kohlberg level 3 stage 1

morality of contract, individual rights and law - underlying purposes of laws

kohlberg level 3 stage 2

morality of individual principles of conscience - individual defines right and wrong on the basis of self generated principles that are broad and universal

Moral behavior - social learning theory

behavioral component of morality - what we actually do when faced with temptation

moral behavior is learned through what?

observational learning, reinforcement and punishment principles

moral disengagement

engaging in immoral behavior even though we know the difference between right and wrong in order to feel better about outselves

evolutionary theory

DENNIS KREBS - focuses on what aspects might be universal and how thought, emotion and behavior have helped humans adapt to their environments

amoral

lacking any sense of morality

mutually responsive orientation

GRAZYNA KOCHANSKA - develops between child and caregiver when there is a close, emotionally positive and cooperative relationship in which they are attached

what age does moral socialization begin at?

age 2

heteronomous moral thinkers

young children judge acts as right or wrong on the basis of their consequences

autonomous thinkers

older children judge on the basis of the intentions that guided the act

Elliot Turiel believed young children can distinguish between which 2 different types of rules

1. moral rules: standards that focus on the welfare and basic rights of individuals (hitting, stealing, lying)
2. social conventional rules: standards determined by social consensus that tells us what is appropriate in particular settings

the child's theory of mind skills

help to understand people's emotional reactions to other's actions

goal of moral socialization

to produce an individual who not only has internalized moral rules but also will abide by them

Which theory serves as a model for moral behavior for the parents to raise their child to behave morally and who is it credited to?

Social Learning Theory - Bandura

According to Martin Hoffman, ___?____ is a key motivator of moral behavior

empathy

What are Martin Hoffman's 3 approaches associated with high levels of moral development

1. love withdrawal- withholding attention, affection or approval when child misbehaves
2. power assertion- using power to threaten, taking privileges away, spankings, punishments
3. induction- explaining to the child why what they did is wrong, how it affects others

what is the best approach to foster moral development of children?

induction

what is the "winning formula" for fostering moral development

blend of frequent inductions + occasional power assertions + a lot of affection

what is the main developmental trend in adolescence thought of from Piaget?

shift from pre-conventional to conventional reasoning

two subgroups of antisocial youth

1. recognizable in childhood and persistently antisocial across life span
2. larger group that behaves antisocially mainly during adolescence in response to peer pressures and outgrows this behavior in adulthood

who analyzed contributors to aggressive behavior?

Kenneth Dodge

individuals who are provoked progress through these steps

1. encoding cues - process information
2. interpretation of cues - make sense of info
3. clarification of goals - what to achieve
4. response search - actions to achieve goal
5. response decision - pros and cons of actions
6. behavioral enactment - doing something

coercive family environments

GERALD PATTERSON - which family members are locked in power struggles, each trying to control the others through negative tactics

gene environment interaction

children with certain genetic predispositions may become antisocial only if they grow up in a dysfunctional family and receive poor parenting

gene environment correlation

children who inherit a genetic predisposition to become aggressive may evoke the coercive parenting

advancing moral growth

advanced schooling, family and social peers, participating in a complex moral society (democracy)

biopsychosocial model of aggression

KENNETH DODGE and GREGORY PETTIT - biological factors and sociocultural factors put certain children at risk for violence

spirituality

a search for ultimate meaning in life that may be carried out within or outside the context of religion

masculine morality of justice

focused on laws, rules, individual rights and fairness

feminine morality of care

an obligation to be selfless and look after the welfare of other people

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