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3 Steps to Infection

Invasion, Multiplication, Reaction

elective localization site

area in which the organism perfers to attach

infection

when a microrganism or a certain living agent enters the body of a human or an animal, multiplies and causes a reaction

contamination

the mere presence of infectious material; the act of introducing disease, germs, or infectious material into an area or substance

2 types of organisms

True Pathogen and Opportunist

true pathogen

real or genuwine disease producing organism (sets out to cause you harm)

opportunist

an organism that exist as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions

pathogenicity

the ability of a pathogen to overcome the defensive powers of the host and to induce disease

virulence

the degree of pathogenicity possessed by the organism to produce disease;the degree of intensity of the disease produced

attenuated

a loss in disease producing ability;an organism whose virulence is decreased

Primary infection

an original infection from which a second infection can occur

secondary infection

an infection caused by a different organism then the one causing the primary infection

mixed infection

an infection caused by 2 or more organisms

local infection

an infection confined to 1 anatomical position

focal infection

an infection confined to 1 anatomical spot from which infectious material spread to other parts of the body

general infection

an infection that becomes systemic

acute infection

an infection that runs a rapaid course with severe manifestations (between 12-48 hours)

chronic infection

long lasting infection with less severe manifestations (48 hours and beyond)

ENdogenous infection

an infection that comes from an organism that is normally present in the body (aka opportunist)

EXOgenous infection

an infection in which the causitive agent reaches the body from the outside and enters through one of the portals of entry

non-communicable

one whose agent is normally inhabiting the body and only occassionaly producing disease. or resides outside the body producing disease only when introduced into the body)

communicable

one whose agent is directly or indirectly transmitted from host to host

incidence

number of new cases per block of population in a specific time

prevalence

number of cases in existance at any given time in that population

sporadic

an occasional case in a community or in a scatter of instances

endemic

a disease that occurs continously in a particular region but has a low mortality rate

epidemic

an appearence of infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area

pandemic

an infectious disease affecting the majority of a population of a large region, or onethat is an epidemic at the same time in many parts of the world

Septicemia

when bacteria enters the blood stream, multiply, causing an infection of the blood stream itself

bacteremia

when bacteria enter the blood stream and do NOT multiply; or the presence of a viable (living, thriving) in the blood stream.

toxemia

when bacteria distribute toxins, and the toxins enter the blood stream causing an infection

factors that influence the virulence of a microbe

has a capsule, pili, spores, toxin producer, enzyme producer

2 types of toxin prodcers

exotoxin and endotoxin

exotoxin

toxin produced by a bacterial cell released into its environment when the bacterial cell is alive

endotoxin

toxin produced by a bacterail cell when it dies or disinergrates

2 types of an exotoxin

hemolysin and leucocidin

hemolysin

toxin released by the bacterial cell hat will lysis or destroy red blood cells

leucocidin

a toxin that will lysis or destroy white blood cells

sources of infection in communicable diseases

active carrier, passive carrier, and human carrier

active carrier

an animal or human that has an infection you could see and/or identify the symptoms

passive carrier

an animal or human that has NO infection but the pathogen is in or on the carrier with no interaction

human carrier

a human that has the infection but is A-Systemic (not presenting)

infections cannot live in a lifeless environmen

sources of infection in a communicable disease

there must be a resvivor for the infection

sources of infection in a communicable disease

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