Research Method

Created by storm1300 

Upgrade to
remove ads

101 terms

c. researcher

In qualitative research the ______ is the most important instrument
a.questionnaire
b.behavior checklist
c.researcher
d.participant

a. a normal and acceptable practice

In qualitative research, the fact that the research methodology may be vaguely described or very general in nature at the outset of the study indicates:
a.a normal and acceptable practice.
b.that the study is poorly designed.
c.that the researcher is inexperienced.
d.a common but unprofessional practice

c.determining the final truth about a situation or phenomenon

Qualitative studies typically serve three of the following purposes. Which purpose do they NOT serve?
a. description of situations, processes, relationships, etc.
b. interpretation of information in order to gain new understanding
c. determining the final truth about a situation or phenomenon
d. evaluation of existing policies, practices, etc

d. content analysis

In ______, a body of material is systematically examined for patterns, themes, or biases.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis

b. ethnography

In ______, a particular group of individuals is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. case study
b. ethnography
c. phenomenology
d. grounded theory

a. phenomenology

In ______, the researcher studies the deep meaning an event or situation holds for other people
a. phenomenology
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis

a. case study

In ______, a particular individual, program, or event is studied in depth over a defined period of time.
a. phenomenology
b. ethnography
c. grounded theory
d. content analysis

b. ethonographic

Carl Compost has been living and working on a communal organic farm for the past six months. He wants to understand the political, environmental, and social perspectives shared by the members of the commune. Dr. Compost is probably employing a/an ______ methodology
a. case study
b. ethnographic
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

a case study

Daniel Daring is an emerging playwright whose works have begun to stir great passions in the major U.S. cities where they are staged. Researcher Eugenia Edge is "shadowing" Mr. Daring for six months in an attempt to understand the artistic process. Dr. Edge is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a.case study
b.grounded theory
c.phenomenological
d.content analysis

c. phenomenological

Helen Heartwell flew to New York City a few weeks after the September 11, 2001, bombing of the World Trade Center. She wanted to know how the victims of the attack were making sense of what had happened to them. Dr. Heartwell is probably employing a/an ______ methodology
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. ethnographic

d. content analysis

Richard Relic is carefully examining writings from the time of the U.S. Civil War to determine how each side characterized the position of their opponent. Dr. Relic is probably employing a ______ methodology.
a. case study
b. grounded theory
c. phenomenological
d. content analysis

c. grounded theory

The constant comparative method of data analysis is most associated with:
a. ethnography.
b. phenomenology.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis

b. ethnography

The technique of participant observation is most associated with:
a. case study.
b. ethnography.
c. grounded theory.
d. content analysis.

c. Grounded theory

______ is most useful in situations where current theory regarding the subject of investigation is inadequate or nonexistent.
a. Case study
b. Ethnography
c. Grounded theory
d. Phenomenology

a. always necessary to obtain informed consent from those being observed.

When conducting observations to be used as data in a qualitative study, it is:
a.always necessary to obtain informed consent from those being observed.
b.not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observations are being conducted in a public place.
c.not necessary to obtain informed consent if the observer is in full view of those being observed.
d.only necessary to obtain informed consent if the study will be published

d. the meaning people draw from an event can vary from person to person.

If you interview two people about the same event and their stories diverge at certain points, you can conclude that:
a at least one of the interviewees is not being fully honest with you.
b.at least one of the participants was not paying attention to what was going on.
c.they didn't really both witness the same event.
d.the meaning people draw from an event can vary from person to person.

d. The researcher should rely as much as possible on a single well-informed respondent.

Three of the following are techniques that strengthen the objectivity of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
a.The researcher should intentionally look for evidence that contradicts his/her hunches or hypotheses.
b.The researcher should collect two or more different kinds of data (e.g., observations and interviews).
c.The researcher should acknowledge personal biases or presumptions in the research report.
d.The researcher should rely as much as possible on a single well-informed respondent.

b. the meaning of past events

Historical research is chiefly concerned with:
a. the study of history.
b. the meaning of past events.
c. creating an accurate chronology of past events.
d. determining an "official" interpretation of a historical event

c. both qualitative and
quantitative methods.

Historical research may include:
a. qualitative, but not quantitative, methods.
b. quantitative, but not qualitative, methods.
c. both qualitative and quantitative methods.
d. neither qualitative or quantitative methods

a. primary data

To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, to her sister in Philadelphia represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data

b. secondary data

To a historical researcher studying the lives of women pioneers in the late 1880s, letters written by Deloris Adams of Philadelphia, describing the life of her sister, Rebecca Adams, a pioneer woman on the Nebraska plains, represent:
a. primary data.
b. secondary data

d. Articles from the Taft newspaper published in the late 19th century

Professor McGrath is studying the history of African Americans in Oklahoma. Three of the following are primary data sources for Professor McGrath. Which one is NOT?
a. Census reports from the all-Black town of Taft
b. Photographs of Taft
c. Diaries of a school teacher in one of the first integrated schools in Taft
d. Articles from the Taft newspaper published in the late 19th century

d. can be used as an advantage to the researcher

In historical research, bias:
a. generally does not exist to a problematic degree.
b. is less of a problem than in other forms of research.
c. is impossible for the researcher to detect.
d. can be used as an advantage to the researcher

c. must be vigilant in regard to bias in both primary and secondary d
ata.

In regard to bias in historical research, the researcher:
a. must be vigilant in regard to bias in secondary data, but it is not a problem with primary data.
b. must be vigilant in regard to bias in primary data, but it is not a problem with secondary data.
c. must be vigilant in regard to bias in both primary and secondary data.
d. can assume that the various biases will cancel each other out without special steps being taken by the researcher.

a. external evidence

Perry Prose is in possession of a letter allegedly written by President Theodore Roosevelt during his time in office. He has taken the letter to a number of experts, who have examined the paper, ink, handwriting, and content of the letter in an attempt to establish its authenticity. Dr. Prose is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

b. internal evidence

Fran Freedom is trying to determine what the phrase "with liberty and justice for all" from the Pledge of Allegiance meant at the time it was penned. She suspects there were actually some limits on "all." Dr. Freedom is attempting to establish ______ regarding the validity of the letter.
a. external evidence
b. internal evidence

d. a chronology

The information to below is an example of:
2004 The rover Spirit lands on Mars.
2005 Spirit extracts first rock sample from below surface of Mars.
2010 Spirit discovers liquid water below surface of Mars.
2011 Spirit finds evidence of carbon-based life forms.
2015 Spirit destroyed by carbon-based life forms.
a. ex post facto research.
b. a historiography.
c. a historic method.
d. a chronology.

d. all of the above

______ is/are an appropriate focus of historical research
a. Concepts
b. Ideas
c. People
d. all of the above

b. false

Historical researchers can count on authoritative sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronology or the Cambridge Ancient History as accurate and complete accounts of
history.
a. True
b. False

c. point out the weaknesses in the arguments or assertions you are making.

In writing a historical research report, it is best to:
a. avoid mentioning alternative interpretations of events proposed by other scholars.
b. leave most of the interpretation of data to the reader rather than impose your own
point of view.
c. point out the weaknesses in the arguments or assertions you are making.
d. discuss the weaknesses, but not the strengths, of arguments put forth by other
scholars.

d. may be intertwined in a flowing narrative style

A historical research report may differ from other research reports in that presentation of data and interpretation of data:
a. are confined to separate sections of the paper.
b. may not be included.
c. may be intertwined in a technical style of scientific writing.
d. may be intertwined in a flowing narrative style

b. involves counting or rating of behavior in as objective a manner as possible.

Observational research, as a form of descriptive research,

d. Observation instruments are intentionally general so as not to constrain the
observer

Three of the following procedures or techniques are integral to observational research. Which one is NOT?

a. what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?

Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:

d. indeterminate

The scatterplot to the right indicates a ______ relationship between Variable A and Variable B.

c. cross-sectional

A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people's preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years. She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies. This is an example of a ______ design.

a. longitudinal

A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old. She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to. This is an example of a ______ design.

c. face-to-face interviews; questionnaires

Among survey methods, _____ generally generate the highest response rate, and ______ generally generate the lowest response rate.

d. because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.

Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:

b. Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.

Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?

b. it makes an unwarranted assumption

"How unhappy are you with your current salary?"
This question violates which rule of good survey writing?

c. 50%

The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about:

a. sample; population

In descriptive research, the researcher typically studies a______, then draws conclusions about the______.

d. stratified random sampling

Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening. Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state. Polly is using:

c. proportional stratifed sampling

Paul Pollster, a political psychologist, wants to determine whether rates of voter participation in his home state vary between rural, urban, and suburban voters. He notes that there are more rural voters than suburban or urban voters in the state. Paul should use ______ in this study.

a. systematic sampling

Simon Cinema wants to know what the audience thought of tonight's advanced screening of a heralded psychological thriller called "I Can't Sleep." He and his research assistants stand outside the theatre exit and ask every fifth person leaving the theatre to answer several questions about their impression of the movie. Simon is using:

c. convenience sampling

Danny Drive wants to know the relationship between intrinsic motivation and course grade among math students. He contacts a local professor who teaches several general education math classes and asks about the possibility of gathering data in her classes. Danny is using:

c. purposive sampling

Edward Ethics is studying public opinion regarding prayer in public schools. He plans to gather survey data from a number of churches on Sunday mornings. He also wants to include a number of people who are not associated with an organized religion in his sample. Edward is using:

c. attempts to determine causality

Experimental research differs from descriptive research in that it:

b. independent variable

In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the:

a. dependent variable

In experimental design, the variable that reflects the outcome of the treatment is the:

d. constant

"There will be gender differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy."
In this hypothesis, gender is the:

a. dependent variable

"There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy."
In this hypothesis, mood elevation is the:

c. independent variable

"There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy."
In this hypothesis, type of therapy is the:

d. confounding variable

"There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy."
During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone. This variable, living situation, is a/an _____.

d. control group

At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam. students studying under the traditional method constitute the:

b. treatment group

At the end of semester all students complete the same final exam. students studying under the problem-based method constitute the:

a. within subjects (repeated measures)

all sections switch instructional method for Unit 2. He plans to compare the performance of the two groups of sections on their Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams. This study employs a ______ design.

c. score on the dog obedience checklist

Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for many years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the dependent variable.

b. type of dog training program

Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). In this study, ______ is the independent

c. posttest-only control group design

Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study. The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course. At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100). This study employed a/an ______ design.

b. experience with Indian boarding school

Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the independent variable.

a. score on the "attitude toward public schools" measure

Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. In this study, _____ is the dependent variable.

d. ex post facto

Dr. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group. He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants. He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education. This study employs a/an ______ design.

a. Multiple baseline design

Three of the following are examples of true experimental designs. Which one is NOT?

d. one-shot experimental design

Three of the following are examples of quasi-experimental designs. Which one is NOT?

a. the reseracher wishes to analyzes of a mumber of existing studies

A meta-analysis is used when:

d. Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population.

How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics?

c. Statistics; parameters

____ are characteristics of samples, wheras _______ are characteristics of populations.

c. 68%

In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores falls between one standard deviation below the mean and one standard deviation above the mean?

a. parametric

Dorothy has been surveying the Munchkins to determine their level of life satisfaction. The possible scores on the life satisfaction questionnaire range from 0 to 100. If Dorothy decides to statistically compare the male and female Munchkins on their level of satisfaction, she should use a _______ test.

c. 4.25

Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The "MEAN" of this set of scores is ______.

c. 4

Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The "MEDIAN" of this set of scores is ______.

A. 3

Here is a set of scores: 5, 3, 7, 3, 6, 2, 5, 3. The "MODE" of this set of scores is ______.

b. the mode only

The measure(s) of central tendency that is/are appropriate for use with nominal data is/are:

c. median

When summarizing ordinal data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.

d. geometric mean

When reporting growth data, the ______ is the most useful measure of central tendency.

b. median; interquartile range

When the ____ is the measure of central tendency, the _____ is the most appropriate and informative measure of dispersion.

c. Section 1 scores were less variable than Section 2

An exam was given to two sections of the same course. In Section 1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 7. In Section 2, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 13. Which of the following conclusions is accurate?

a. how far a target individual's score is from the group mean

The z-score, or standard score, allows the research to determine:

d. what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the target individual

The percentile rank allows the researcher to determine:

a. a positive

Danzell is a purchasing agent for a major grocery store chain. He has noticed over the years that the higher the outdoor temperature, the more likely people are to buy fresh fruit. Based on Danzell's observations, we would say there is ______ relationship between outdoor temperature and buying of fresh fruit.

b. strong; negative

Frank Fitness found a correlation coefficient of -.74 between hours of strenuous exercise each week and a standard measure of body mass. He interprets this to mean that there is a ______ and ______ relationship between hours of strenuous exercise and body mass.

c. the variance in the sample is relatively large

Three of the following factors are associated with a relatively small standard error of the mean. Which one is NOT?

b. interval

Seamus has determined that there is a 95% chance that the number of people visiting the Blarney Stone in the month of June will be between 1,760 and 2,025. This is a/an ______ estimate.

d. null hypothesis

Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the:

a. Type I error

On the basis of statistical findings, Ron determines that the differences between males and females on a test of spatial reasoning are not due merely to chance. If, in fact, there are no gender differences in the population, Ron will have made a:

b. Type II error

On the basis of statistical findings, Becky determines that the difference between males and females on a test of abstract mathematical reasoning is merely due to chance. If, in fact, there are gender differences in the population, Becky will have made a:

a. results

When writing the research report, the findings of statistical analyses are typically reported in the ______ section.

b. method

When writing the research report, the descriptions of instruments used for data gathering are typically included in the ______ section.

d. discussion

When writing the research report, the interpretation of study findings is typically included in the ______ section.

a. introduction

When writing the research report, the research problem is typically described in the ______ section.

c. method

When writing the research report, information regarding the study design is typically included in the ______ section.

b. end matter

The reference list is included in the:

c. appendices

Copies of the survey instruments are included in the:

a. front matter

The abstract is included in the:

d. method section

In a quantitative study, the description of participants (subjects) is included in the:

a. front matter

The acknowledgments are included in the:

a. active voice

"Johnson eliminated three interviews from the data set due to noncompliance on the part of the respondents."

b. passive voice

"The third subscale was dropped from further consideration due to problems with internal consistency."

d. past; present

The style manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that ____ tense be used when writing the method section and ______ tense be used when presenting conclusions.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

NEW! Voice Recording

Click the mic to start.

Create Set