Genetically identical molecules, cells, or organisms all derived from a single ancestor.
a ball of undifferentiated plant cells
how are plants cloned
Single cells are transferred into growth medium, cells divide to form a ball of cells called callus. each callus is transferred to new medium, plants are transferred to soil
What are the two most common ways to clone animals
1. embroyo spiliting
2. nuclear transfer (cell fusion)
unfertilized egg is collected and then fertilizes in a dish by IVF.
fertlized eggs develops 8-16 cells.
indiviual cells are separated and grown. then embroyos are implants into mother
cell fusion. more difficult, but can yield more.
gene must be removed
what are the multi-stpes of cloning
1. the gene must be removed from the donor
2. the gene must then be processed and packaged
3. upon delivery the gene must be replicated (cloned)
enzymes that cut both strands of the sugar-phosphaste backbone of DNA
-cuts only at specific sequences
=found primary in bacteria where they but foreign DNA as it enter the cells
THE gene or sequence of interest
carrier molecules that allow us to shuttle genes from one organism to the next. Self-replicating DNA molecules that are used to transfer foreign DNA segments between host cells.
small self-replicating circular pieces of DNA. commonly used as vectors
we need to isolate the insert or vector DNA away from
agarose gel electrophoresis
separates DNA fragments by sice and allows us to visulalize them after staining
What is DNA charged
LArger moelcules move
quicker towards positive end
used for comparison to determine the size of fragments
an intercalating agent used to see DNA
steps of recombiants DNA molecule:
1. Cutting DNA
2. Separating and Visulazing DNA
enzyme used to seal DNA molecules with complementary sticky or blunt ends
To create our recombiant DNA moleucle
mix vector, insert, ligate
A bacterial enzyme that cuts DNA at specific sites.