Practical 4

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To supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide

Major role of the respiratory system

pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gasses, internal respiration

Four processes of respiration

pulmonary ventilation

The tidelike movements of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the alveoli are continuously changed and refreshed. Also more simply called ventilation or breathing.

external respiration

The gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs (oxygen loading/ carbon dioxide unloading)

Transport of respiratory gases

The transport of gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body accomplished by the cardiovascular system, using blood as the transport vehicle.

internal respiration

Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells (oxygen unloading/ carbon dioxide loading)

inferior, superior and middle

name the three pair of nasal conchae

epiglottis

'guardian of the airways'

digestive

the system that consists of a hollow tube extending from mouth to anus

peristalsis

involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system

rugae of mucosa

folds of the stomach

gallbladder

stores bile

thyroid and cricoid

two most prominent cartilage of the larynx

trachea

windpipe

alveoli

tiny balloon like expansions along the alveolar sacs and occassionally found protruding from alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles

inspiration and expiration

breathing consists of two phases

tidal volume

amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions

inspiratory reserve volme

amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation

residual volume

the amount of air that remains in the lungs after a maximal expiratory effort

medulla and pons

where are the neural control center of respiratory rhythm?

inc thoracic vol, decr pressure

under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs?

decr thoracic vol, inc pressure

under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs?

digestion

for ingested food to become available to the body cells, it must first be broken down physically and chemically into its smaller diffusible molecules- the process is called

GI Tract and the accesory digestive organs

the organs of the digestive system are traditionally separated into two major groups:

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa or adventitia

the alimentary canal walls have four tunics:

larynx

it is subdivided into nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharyn

esophagus

extends from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the gastroesophageal sphinter in the superior aspect of the stomach

pyloric sphincter

after the food is processed in the stomach, it resembles a creamy mass (chyme), which enters the small intestine through what?

duodenum, jejunum and ileum

subdivisions of the small intestine

parotid, submandibular and sublingual

list the 3 pair of salivary glands

parotid

large glands located anterior to the ear and ducting into the mouth over the second upper molar through the parotid duct

submandibular

located along the medial aspect of the mandibular body in the floor or the mouth, and ducting under the tongue to the base of the lingual frenulum

sublingular

small glands located most anteriorly in the floor of the mouth and emptying under the tongue via several small ducts

large intestine

its major function is to consolidate and propel the unusable fecal matter toward the anus and eliminate it from the body,

gallbladder

stores bile

kupffer cells

star-shaped hepatic macrophages

amylase

the enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands and secreted into the mouth, hydrolyzes starch to maltose.

trypsin

the enzyme that is secreted by the pancreas, is responsible for breaking down proteins.

pancreatic lipase

the enzyme hydrolyzes neutral fats to their component monoglycerides and fatty acids.

deglutition

swallowing

segmental

movements are local contractions that mix foodstuffs with digestive juices and increase the rate of absorption.

peristaltic movements

the major means of propelling food through most of the digestive viscera

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