pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of gasses, internal respiration
Four processes of respiration
The tidelike movements of air into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the alveoli are continuously changed and refreshed. Also more simply called ventilation or breathing.
The gas exchange between the blood and the air-filled chambers of the lungs (oxygen loading/ carbon dioxide unloading)
Transport of respiratory gases
The transport of gases between the lungs and tissue cells of the body accomplished by the cardiovascular system, using blood as the transport vehicle.
Exchange of gases between systemic blood and tissue cells (oxygen unloading/ carbon dioxide loading)
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
tiny balloon like expansions along the alveolar sacs and occassionally found protruding from alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles
inspiratory reserve volme
amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
inc thoracic vol, decr pressure
under what internal conditions does air tend to flow into the lungs?
decr thoracic vol, inc pressure
under what internal conditions does air tend to flow out of the lungs?
for ingested food to become available to the body cells, it must first be broken down physically and chemically into its smaller diffusible molecules- the process is called
GI Tract and the accesory digestive organs
the organs of the digestive system are traditionally separated into two major groups:
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa or adventitia
the alimentary canal walls have four tunics:
extends from the pharynx through the diaphragm to the gastroesophageal sphinter in the superior aspect of the stomach
after the food is processed in the stomach, it resembles a creamy mass (chyme), which enters the small intestine through what?
large glands located anterior to the ear and ducting into the mouth over the second upper molar through the parotid duct
located along the medial aspect of the mandibular body in the floor or the mouth, and ducting under the tongue to the base of the lingual frenulum
small glands located most anteriorly in the floor of the mouth and emptying under the tongue via several small ducts
its major function is to consolidate and propel the unusable fecal matter toward the anus and eliminate it from the body,
the enzyme that is produced by the salivary glands and secreted into the mouth, hydrolyzes starch to maltose.
the enzyme hydrolyzes neutral fats to their component monoglycerides and fatty acids.
movements are local contractions that mix foodstuffs with digestive juices and increase the rate of absorption.