Sociology Exam 2

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Socialization

A process in which we learn and internalize the attitudes, values, beliefs, and norms of our culture and develop a sense of self.

Facets of socialization

1. Culture
2. Societies
3. Values
4. Social Norms

Sociobiology

A field that integrates theories and research from biology and sociology in an effort to better understand human behavior

Personality

A dominant pattern of attitudes, feelings, and behaviors

Sense of Self

A person's conscious recognition that he or she is a distinct individual who is part of a larger society

I

In Mead's schema, the unsocialized self as subject (I want to eat, I am tired)

Me

In Mead's schema, the socialized self as object

Looking Glass-Self

Cooley's concept that individuals use others like mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected back to them during social interaction

Situated Self

The self that emerges in a particular situation

Agents of socialization

Those groups and institutions that both informally and formally take on the task of socialization

Social Learning Theory

he idea that much human behavior is learned from modeling others → Role Modeling
Individuals learn the attitudes, values, beliefs, and social norm of society through modeling and through reward and punishment

Techno media

Computers and electronic telecommunication

Life Course

A process in which individuals move from one biological social stage to another as they grow and develop

Rites of Passage

Ceremonies that symbolically acknowledge transitions from one life stage to another

Primary Socialization

The learning of human characteristics and behaviors and the development of a concept of self

Role Taking

The ability to anticipate what others expect of us, and to act accordingly.

Significant Others

Specific people with whom we interact and whose response has meaning for us

Generalized Others

The dominant attitudes and expectations of most members of society

Anticipatory Socialization

Learning designed to prepare an individual for the fulfillment of future statuses and roles

Developmental Socialization

Learning better to fulfill the roles we already occupy

Desocialization

The "unlearning" of previous normative expectations and roles

Resocialization

Learning a radically different set of norms, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

Conflict Theorist

Social stratification causes conflict

Structural Functionalist

Institutions serve as a medium of acquiring what is right and wrong

Life Course Perspective

Moving from one life stage to the next

Social Differentiation

A process in which people are set apart for differential treatment by virtue of their statuses, roles, and other social characteristics.

Social Inequality

A condition in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige

Social Stratification

A form of inequality in which categories of people are systematically ranked in a hierarchy on the basis of their access to scarce but valued resources.

Four caste systems

1. Slave system
2. Caste System
3. Estate system
4. Class system

Wealth

A person or family's total economic assets

Power

The ability to realize one's will, even against the resistance and the opposition of others.

Prestige

The respect and admiration people attach to various social positions.

Socioeconomic status

A ranking that combines income, occupational prestige, level of education, and neighborhood to asses people's positions in the stratification system.

Dimensions of social classes

1. Income
2. Wealth
3. Occupational Prestige
4. Education

Income

Combined wages or salary plus earnings from investments

Income gap

Distance between the top and bottom earners in the US and it's getting bigger, comparison between the top 20 percent and the bottom 20 percent

Wealth

A person or family's total economic assets minus their outstanding debts

Occupational Prestige

How much social standing a person of a particular occupation would be viewed as having, just on the basis of their job

Education

Formal schooling

Culture of poverty

A set of norms, beliefs, values, and attitudes that trap a small number of the urban poor in a permanent cycle of poverty.

Life chances

Opportunities for securing such things as health, education, autonomy, leisure, and a long life.

Social mobility

The movement of people from one social position to another in the stratification system. All about opportunity

Intergenerationally

Is your social class different from that of your family of origin?

Intrageneraltionally

Have you changed social class through your adult life

Structural Mobility

Large-scale changes in occupational, educational, and corporate social structures that enable people to move up or down in the stratification system.

Sex

Biological and physical differences between females and males

Gender

Cultural understanding of what constitutes masculinity and femininity in a society

Transgender

Individuals whose gender identity differs from the sex of their birth ("trapped in a woman's/man's body")

Transsexual

Individuals who undergo surgery to change their biological sex

Sexual Orientation

Preference of sex partners

Gender Roles

The social and cultural expectations associated with a person's sex

Masculinity

Attributes considered appropriate for males

Femininity

Attributes considered appropriate for females

Gender Identity

Acknowledging one's sex and internalizing the norms, values, and behaviors of the accompanying gender expectations

Androgyny

A blending of masculine and feminine attributes

Sexism

The idea that one gender is inherently superior or inferior to another

Patriarchy

A system in which males dominate females in most spheres of life (politics, economics, family, etc.)

Matriarchy

A system in which women dominate men politically, economically, socially

Feminism

The ideology aimed at eliminating patriarchy in support of equality between the sexes

Oppression

An interrelated system of forces and barriers which reduce, immobilize, and mold people who belong to a certain group.

Sex Marking

The elaborate, systematic, ubiquitous and redundant marking of a distinction between two sexes of humans

3 types of sex marking

1. Bodily and physical adornment
2. Movement and posture
3. Speaking

Biological Race

A population that differs from others in the frequency of certain hereditary traits

Races

Categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics

Ethnicity

Statuses based on cultural heritage and shared "feelings of people hood"

Ethnic group

A category of people set apart from others because of distinctive customs and lifestyles

Minority Group

A category of people who are set apart for unequal treatment because of physical or cultural characteristics

Prejudice

Preconceived judgments about a category of people

Racism

Beliefs and attitudes that one racial category is inherently superior or inferior to another

Scapegoat

A weak, convenient, and socially approved target

Ethnocentrism

The tendency to judge the customs of others according to one's own cultural standards

Stereotypes

Static and oversimplified ideas about a group or a social category

Split-labor market

An economic situation in which two groups of workers are willing to do the same work for different wages

Discrimination

Unequal treatment of people because of their group membership

Cultural Pluralism

When racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and lifestyles.

Assimilation

A process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant group.

Segregation

Physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities (social and public things).

Genocide

Deliberate and systematic elimination of minority group members

Asian Americans

Fastest growing minority group in the USA

Latinos

Largest minority group in the USA

Gerontology

The scientific study of aging and the elderly

Senescence

Natural deterioration of cells and organs as a result of aging

Gerontocracy

A society in which the elderly control most of the society's wealth, power, and prestige.

Ageism

The belief that people in a particular age category are inferior to people in other age categories.

Gray panthers

An organization with the goal of eliminating ageism in all its forms.

Thanatology

The scientific study of death and dying

Social Disengagement theory

Contends that as people age they gradually withdraw from social participation and simultaneously are relieved of social responsibilities.

Activity theory of aging

Contends that it is the extent to which an individual remains engaged in meaningful social activities that determines the quality of live in old age.

Conflict approach to aging

Asserts that the elderly compete with younger members of society for the same resources and social rewards and suffer a variety of disadvantages because of their relative lack of social power.

Subculture theory of aging

States that older persons form subcultures in order to interact with others with similar backgrounds, experiences, attitudes, and lifestyles.

Exchange theory of aging

Contends that norms of reciprocity govern interaction and that elderly people engage in meaningful social interactions as long as they are mutually beneficial to all parties.

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