Pharmacology of the autonomic Nervous System

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Key Terms

acetylcholine (A Ch)

the chemical neurotransmitter of skeletal muscles, the preganglionic sites of both the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system, and the postganglionic sites of the parasympathetic nervous system

acetylcholinesterase (A ChE)

also known as cholinesterase. The enzyme that deactivates actylcholine

adrenergic agents

agents that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system

adrenergic receptors

receptors of the sympathetic nervous system that include alpha and beta receptors

afferent nerves

nerves that carry impulses to the brain and spinal cord. Also known as sensory nerves

alpha receptors

receptors found in the sympathetic nervous system that generally cause vasoconstriction

antiadrenergics

agents that block the effects of the sympathetic nervous system

anticholinergic

agents that block the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

the nervous system that controls the involuntary responses and is divided into the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches

beta receptors

receptors found in the sympathetic nervous system that are divided int beta1 and beta 2 subcategories

central nervous system (CNS)

the nervous system comprised of the brain and spinal cord

cholinergic

referring to the parasympathetic nervous system where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter substance at all granglionic sites

dopamine receptors

adgenergic receptors found in renal tissue that when stimulated , relax the renal arteries and therefor increase renal perfusion

efferent nerves

nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord, also known as motor nerves

ganglion

nerve cell body outside of the brain and spinal cord

muscarinic receptors

receptors found at the postganglionic site of the parasympathetic nervous system

nicotinic receptors

receptors found at the postganglionic site of the parasympathetic nervous system

norepinephrine (NE)

the chemical neurotransmitter substance found at the postganglionic junction of the sympathetic nervous system

parasympathetic

branch of the peripheral nervous system that maintains normal body functions and homeostasis (feed and breed)

parasympatholyitc

agent that blocks or antagonizes the effects of the parasymphathetic system

parasympathomimetic

agent that stimulates the parasympathetic system

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

part of the nervous system comprised of all nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, includes the somatic and autonomic nervous system

reuptake

process wherein norepinephrine is deactivated at the sympathetic postganglionic sites

somatic nervous system

the part of the nervous system that controls skeletal muscles and therefore voluntary movement

sympathetic

the branch of the peripheral nervous system that prepares the body for strss and emergencies (flight or fight)

sympatholytic

agent that blocks or antagonizes the effects of the sympathetic system

sympatomimetic

agent that stimulates the sympathetic system

beta1 receptors

found primarily in the heart, when stimulated they cause an increase in the rate and force of contaction

Beta 2 receptors

found primarily in the lungs, when stimulated they cause bronchodilation

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