Psychology Review

44 terms by prenner 

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Renner Chapter 3

adaptation

a change in behavior to meet the needs of a changing environment

analysis

trying to figure out the meaning of a set of observations

behavioral science

using the scientific method to study human behavior

classical conditioning

a pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, leading to a response

conscious needs

those needs of which we are aware

creativity

the ability to think, do, or see things in a new and different way

denial

refusing to believe something even though it's obvious

developmental psychologist

studies the pyschological changes that occur as we age

ego

acts as a referee between the id and superego

emotions

feelings such as love, hate, anger, happiness

empathy

feeling as another person does

environment

your surroundings

heredity

the passing of traits from parents to children through reporduction

id

represents our most basic needs

learning

a change in behavior caused by experience

mental set

an expectation of the way things should be or will be

needs

what humans require to survive and grow in a healthy way

negative reinforcement

taking away something unpleasant in order to get a desired behavior (the behavior must come first, though)

observation

watching and writing down facts and events

operant conditioning

training a subject to perform a certain action through the use of reinforcers

perception

taking in information from the environment

personality

the combination of hereditary factors, environmental factors, and experience patterns that make us unique individuals

positive reinforcement

giving a reward in order to get a desired behavior (the behavior must come first, though)

projection

projecting one's faults onto someone or something else

psychology

the study of how the mind and body work together to create thoughts that lead to actions

rationalization

making an excuse for an action without realizing the excuse is not the real reason for the action

repression

pushing unpleasant memories into the subconscious

response

an action caused by a stimulus

self-actualization

becoming the best person you can be

shaping

rewarding a subject when the subject performs a behavior that is close to the desired behavior

stimulus

leads to a response

superego

represents society's teachings regarding right and wrong

trial-and-error learning

trying different ways to solve a problem until one works

unconscious needs

those needs of which we are not fully aware

Freud

Austrian psychologist who was one of the first to seriously examine the personality

Maslow

argued that needs must be met in a certain sequence, or hierarchy

blind self

aspects of yourself that are known to others but not known to you

hidden self

aspects of yourself that are not known to others but are known to you

open self

aspects of yourself that are known to you and known to others

unknown self

aspects of yourself that are not to you and not known to others

esteem needs/ self esteem

our need to feel competent and confident, and for recognition

social needs

our need to for acceptance, affection

safety and security

our need to feel free from danger; our need for predictability and stability

physical needs

our most basic need for food, water, survival

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