Cardiovascular System NCLEX Practice ?s

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A client has been diagnosed with pericarditis. Which layers of the heart are affected with this illness?


a. Between the pericardium and the mediastinum
b. Between the pericardium and the myocardium
c. Between the myocardium and the mediastinum
d. Between the myocardium and the endocardium

b. Between the pericardium and the myocardium

The nurse is listening to a client's heartbeat and is focusing on the second heart sound. Which heart valves produce this sound?


a. Aortic and tricuspid
b. Aortic and pulmonic
c. Mitral and pulmonic
d. Mitral and tricuspid

b. Aortic and pulmonic

The nurse hears a heart sound right before S1 on a 72-year-old male client. What can this finding suggest to the nurse?


a. Nothing. This is normal.
b. This is an atrial kick and helps the heart beat better.
c. This is an atrial gallop and can mean something is wrong.
d. This is a ventricular gallop and is heard in healthy people.

c. This is an atrial gallop and can mean something is wrong.

An S4 heard before S1 is termed an atrial gallop and may be associated with pathologic conditions such as myocardial infarction or heart failure.

The nurse hears a heart murmur on a client and wants to grade this soft but very audible sound. How should this heart murmur be described?


a. Grade 3
b. Grade 2
c. Grade 4
d. Grade 1

b. Grade 2

A client has been diagnosed with a myocardial infarction that has damaged a part of the right atrium. Which of the following could happen as a result of this damage?

a. Increase in collateral circulation
b. Nothing
c. A change in the rate and rhythm of the client's heartbeat
d. Onset of aortic regurgitation

c. A change in the rate and rhythm of the client's heartbeat

A nurse, explaining the cardiac circulation to cardiac rehabilitation clients, wants to include the oxygenation of the heart muscle. Which of the following structures carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?


a. Right main coronary vein
b. Pulmonary vein
c. Pulmonary artery
d. Great cardiac vein

c. Pulmonary artery

The nurse notes a client's PR interval upon ECG is greater than 0.20 seconds. What can this information suggest to the nurse?


a. The client's sinoatrial node is not pacing correctly.
b. There is an elongated ventricular depolarization.
c. It takes longer for the blood to leave the lungs and return to the heart.
d. The client elongated ventricular is filling.

a. The client's sinoatrial node is not pacing correctly.

The nurse is calculating the cardiac output for a client with a heart rate of 88 beats per minute. What other measurements does the nurse need to complete this calculation?


a. Cardiac index
b. QT interval
c. T wave
d. Stroke volume

d. Stroke volume

The nurse finds a 76-year-old client's point of maximum impulse farther away from the fifth intercostal space, midclavicular line. What does this finding suggest to the nurse?


a. The client has hypertension.
b. The client had pneumonia.
c. The client has benign prostatic hypertrophy.
d. The client had a heart attack.

a. The client has hypertension.

During the cardiac focused interview, the client tells the nurse he has smoked for 30 years. Which of the following would be appropriate for the nurse to respond to this client?


a. High dose vitamin therapy reduces the risks of smoking.
b. Exercise reduces the harmful effects of smoking.
c. Do you also take recreational drugs?
d. Smoking has been linked to high blood pressure and other heart problems.

d. Smoking has been linked to high blood pressure and other heart problems.

During the examination of an eight-month-pregnant client, the nurse measures the blood pressure at 160/98 and notes bilateral edema of the ankles. What do these findings suggest to the nurse?


a. This client is going into labor early.
b. The client is in normal health.
c. The client is hyperventilating.
d. The client could be preeclamptic.

d. The client could be preeclamptic.

During the cardiac assessment, the nurse finds a client has jugular vein distention. What does this mean to the nurse?


a. The client is fine.
b. The client is dehydrated.
c. The client has an infection.
d. The client could have fluid overload.

d. The client could have fluid overload.

The nurse feels pulsations on a client's right sternal border, second space. What does this finding suggest to the nurse?


a. A prolapsed mitral valve
b. Aortic stenosis
c. Nothing. This is a normal finding.
d. Tricuspid valve regurgitation

b. Aortic stenosis

During the cardiac assessment, the nurse learns a client had rheumatic heart fever as a child. For which of the following cardiac conditions should this client be assessed?


a. Pulmonic stenosis
b. Aortic stenosis
c. Mitral regurgitation
d. Mitral stenosis

d. Mitral stenosis

The nurse is instructing a client about his high cholesterol level and wants to include behavioral considerations. Which of the following should be included in this instruction?


a. The need for annual flu inoculation
b. The need for an annual cholesterol panel
c. The need to stop smoking
d. The need to reduce stress

c. The need to stop smoking

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