which process is the functionof the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?
mixing and propulsion
which process is the primary function of the mouth?
which process is the function of the villi of the small intestine?
which accessory organ produces fluid to soften food?
which accessory organ produces fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
which accessory organ stores bile?
the capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called_______
this layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels
this layer of the GI tract is composed of areola connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis
this layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid
these are compsed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response
this plexus is located btw the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis
why do emotion such as anger or fear slow digestion?
bc they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract
this portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the the small intestine
this portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diapharm
this portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines
describe the hard palate (3)
1. is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth
2. is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones
3. is covered by a mucous membrane
in the mouth, this runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx
in the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with
deciduous molars are replaced by
which spinchter contains skeletal muscle? (LES/UES)
how many stages of deglutition are there?
this structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage
which cell secrete gastric acid?
this cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid
how long can foodd stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?
this major duct carries a fluid rich bicarbonate ions
this gastric enzyme digest protein
this is the heaviest gland of the body
this is found on the liver and is remnant of the umbilical cord in a fetus
this is the principle bile pigment
name the functions of the liver
1. conversion of carbohydrates
2. protein metabolism
3. storage or bilirubin
4. storage of vitamins
which of the small intestine cells secretes lysozyme?
duodenal glands (brunners glands )secretes (2)
mucous and alkaline juice
which enzyme acts to produce monoglycerides as products?
which pancreatic enzyme acts to produce monosaccharides?
which pancreatic enzyme acts to produce smaller peptides from proteins?
this hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine
this hormone is stimulated by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine
this digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins
this structure regulates the flow of material into the colon
what is the primary function of the large intestine?
chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones
chemical reaction that combine simpler molecules and monomers to form complex structures
when the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP what is formed?
removal of electrons
addition of electrons
this is a derivative of vitamin B
form of phosphorylation
1. substrate level phosphorylation
2. oxidative phosphorylation
1. performed by hepatocytes
2. performed by muscle fibers
3. one way to make glucose
4. only seen in the liver
this process is the synthesis of triglycerides
this reaction oxidizes acetyl co-A to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH and FADH2
glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, krebs cycle and the ETC are all involved in
this is the key regulator of the rate of glycolysis
where cam pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?
the most abundant product of the reactions of the kreb cycle is...
reduced co enzymes
the net result of the complete oxidation of glucose include? (4)
4. waste heat
how many reactions take place during Krebs cycle?
when a large amount of H+ accumulates btw the inner and outer mitochondria membranes, this describes_____
how many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?
what hormone stimulates glycogenesis?
which hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?
glycogenolysis is ________ and stimulated by ____________
these transport dietary lipids
most cholesterol medications are designed to
inhibit glucose absorption
where does glycolysis take place?
where does the krebs cycle take place?
lipogenesis occurs when
more calories are consumed than required fro ATP need
excess amino acids in the body are
converted into glucose
live cell convert
ammonia into urea
what can glucose-6-phosphate do? (4)
1. can be used to make ribose-5-phosphate
2. can be dephosphorylated to glucose
3. can be used to synthesized glycogen
4. can be converted to pyruvic acid
which is used in "metabolic crossroads"?
what is important in the absorptive state ?
storage of energy
most glucose that enters the liver is converted to