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which process is the functionof the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?

mixing and propulsion

which process is the primary function of the mouth?

ingestion

which process is the function of the villi of the small intestine?

absorption

which accessory organ produces fluid to soften food?

salivary glands

which accessory organ produces fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?

liver

which accessory organ stores bile?

gallbladder

the capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called_______

motilty

this layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels

lamina propria

this layer of the GI tract is composed of areola connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis

submucosa

this layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid

serosa

these are compsed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response

MALT

this plexus is located btw the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis

myenteric plexus

why do emotion such as anger or fear slow digestion?

bc they stimulate the sympathetic nerves that supply the GI tract

this portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the the small intestine

greater omentum

this portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diapharm

falciform ligament

this portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines

mesocolon

describe the hard palate (3)

1. is the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth
2. is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones
3. is covered by a mucous membrane

in the mouth, this runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx

palatopharyngeal arch

in the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with

peridontal ligament

deciduous molars are replaced by

bicuspids

which spinchter contains skeletal muscle? (LES/UES)

UES

how many stages of deglutition are there?

3

this structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage

rugae

which cell secrete gastric acid?

parietal cells

this cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid

G cells

how long can foodd stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?

1 hour

this major duct carries a fluid rich bicarbonate ions

pancreatic duct

this gastric enzyme digest protein

pepsin

this is the heaviest gland of the body

liver

this is found on the liver and is remnant of the umbilical cord in a fetus

round ligament

this is the principle bile pigment

bilirubin

name the functions of the liver

1. conversion of carbohydrates
2. protein metabolism
3. storage or bilirubin
4. storage of vitamins

which of the small intestine cells secretes lysozyme?

paneth cells

duodenal glands (brunners glands )secretes (2)

mucous and alkaline juice

which enzyme acts to produce monoglycerides as products?

lipase

which pancreatic enzyme acts to produce monosaccharides?

amylase

which pancreatic enzyme acts to produce smaller peptides from proteins?

chymotrypsin

this hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine

secretin

this hormone is stimulated by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine

cholecystokinin

this digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins

hydrochloric acid

this structure regulates the flow of material into the colon

ileocecal sphincter

what is the primary function of the large intestine?

feces formation

chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones

catabolism

chemical reaction that combine simpler molecules and monomers to form complex structures

anabolism

when the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP what is formed?

adenosine diphosphate

oxidation

removal of electrons

reduction

addition of electrons

this is a derivative of vitamin B

NAD

form of phosphorylation

1. substrate level phosphorylation
2. oxidative phosphorylation
3. photophosphorylation

glycogenesis

1. performed by hepatocytes
2. performed by muscle fibers
3. one way to make glucose
4. only seen in the liver

this process is the synthesis of triglycerides

lipogenesis

this reaction oxidizes acetyl co-A to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH and FADH2

krebs cycle

glycolysis, formation of acetyl coA, krebs cycle and the ETC are all involved in

glucose catabolism

this is the key regulator of the rate of glycolysis

phosphofructokinase

where cam pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?

mitochondria

the most abundant product of the reactions of the kreb cycle is...

reduced co enzymes

the net result of the complete oxidation of glucose include? (4)

1. water
2. CO2
3. ATP
4. waste heat

how many reactions take place during Krebs cycle?

8

when a large amount of H+ accumulates btw the inner and outer mitochondria membranes, this describes_____

chemiosmosis

how many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?

2

what hormone stimulates glycogenesis?

insulin

which hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?

thyroid

glycogenolysis is ________ and stimulated by ____________

catabolic, epinephrine

thyroid hormones

promotes glycolysis

these transport dietary lipids

chylomicrons

most cholesterol medications are designed to

inhibit glucose absorption

where does glycolysis take place?

cytosol

where does the krebs cycle take place?

mitochondria

lipogenesis occurs when

more calories are consumed than required fro ATP need

excess amino acids in the body are

converted into glucose

live cell convert

ammonia into urea

what can glucose-6-phosphate do? (4)

1. can be used to make ribose-5-phosphate
2. can be dephosphorylated to glucose
3. can be used to synthesized glycogen
4. can be converted to pyruvic acid

which is used in "metabolic crossroads"?

pyruvic acid

what is important in the absorptive state ?

storage of energy

most glucose that enters the liver is converted to

glycogen

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