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chapters 13, 14, 15

Aristotle believed

everything is Perfect and unchanging

The 18th century french naturalist Lamarck argued for which of the following ideas

Life evolves, use/disuse, inheritance

Which one of the following people developed a theory of evolution identical to Darwin's

Wallace

Unifying theme of biology is

Evolution

Broccoli and cabbage both descended from the same wild mustard and can interbreed. This is an example of

Artificial Selection

Fossils form by which of the following processes

Organic material decays

Which one of the following represents two structures that are homologous

Vestigial organs- forearms, etc

A change in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool is called

micro evolution

In the hardy-weinberg equation, homozygous dominant individuals in a population are represented by

p2

Genetic drift resulting from a disaster that drastically reduces population size is called

Bottleneck

The degree of adaptation that can occur in a population is limited by

Gene pool

Tay sachs is autosomal recessive- homozygs die, heterozygs are resistant to tuberculosis. This is called

heterozygous advantage

There is no fitness difference between individuals with dark and light hair. This describes

neutral variation

Average size of antler size remains the same over a long period of time. This describes

Stabilizing selection

The evolution of long-legged cheetahs is best explained by

natural selection

There are two types of rabbits- very dark and very light. No intermediate. This describes

disruptive selection

mate-attracting features result from

sexual dimorphism

Large antlers in males are an example of

intrasexual selection

Macro evolution can be defined as

big changes and broad patterns over long periods of time

A biological species is defined as

A group of populations whose members have the ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring

Speciation can occur as a result of reproductive isolation- this occurs when individuals of organisms are

Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers

Example of temporal isolation

can interbreed, one at dusk one at dawn

example of habitat isolation

can interbreed, on different flowers

example of behavioral isolation

can interbreed, not attracted to each other

example of mechanical isolation

one is pollinated by bumblebees, other by honeybees

example of gametic isolation

sperm cannot enter egg

Example of reduced hybrid viability

produce zygots, embryo cannot develop

example of reproductive barrier

closely related species cannot mate

isolation of a species, with a reproductive barrier forming between it and the parent species is called

allopatric speciation

the likelihood of allopatric speciation increases when a popoulation is

small and isolated

speciation without geographic isolation is called

sympatric speciation

organisms with more than two complete sets of chromosomes are

polyploid

most polyploid species arise from

accidents during cell division

the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor that finds itself ina new and diverse environment is called

adaptive radiation

situation in which a structure that evolved in one context is later adapted for another function is called

exaptions

evolution is a response to interactions between organisms and

environment

by studying fossils in strata from many locations, scientists can learn about

macro evolution

the earliest discovered fossils are ____ dating back to ____ years ago

stromatolites, 3.5 bya

The technique called radiometric dating is based on

measurement of radioactive isotopes

the continents and seafloors together form a thin outer layer of the Earth called the

crust

geologists call the forces within the Earth than cause movements of the crust

continental drift

the Galapagos islands formed by

volcanic eruption

how many periods of mass extinctions have occurred in the last 600 mil yrs?

5, 6 including the one we're in

which of the following is the process by which species not closely related may come to resemble one another if they live in a similar environment

convergent

structures that evolved from the same structure in an ancestor are

homology shared in ancestral characteristics

Similarities in a function of hummingbird wings and the wings of a butterfly reflect

derivative form characteristics

the scientific name of the human species is

homo sapiens

taxonomic categories in order fom most specific to most general

Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom, Domain

Three domain system is

prokaryotes, eukaryotes, archaea

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