Cellular Adaptations, Cell Injury, and Cell Death

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Terms and ides from Chapter 1 in Robbins Pathology.

Hypoxia

What contributes to vacuolar degeneration of cells?

Anaerobic Glycolysis

How does a hypoxic cell derive its energy?

Decreased pump capacity

Why does edema occur in hypoxic cells?

Reversible

Is vacuolar degeneration reversible or irreversible cell damage?

True

Necrosis is always pathologic (True/false).

False

Apoptosis is always pathologic (True/false).

Ischemia

Decreased blood flow to a tissue

Hypoxia

Decreased oxygen to a tissue

hypoxic

Which tissues are damaged more rapidly, ischemic or hypoxic?

Swollen mitochondria; swollen ER; pyknosis

List the characteristics of a cell in a state of reversible injury.

Coagulative

The type of necrosis dominated by denaturation

Liquefactive

The type of necrosis characterized by dominant enzyme digestion.

Coagulative

Type of necrosis characterized by preserved cell outlines

Coagulative

Decreased cellular pH resulting in the denaturation of cellular enzymes occurs in this type of necrosis.

Liquefactive

Necrosis characterized by focal bacterial or fungal infections

Coagulative

Dry gangrene is an example of this type of necrosis

Wet Gangrene

A necrotic tissue (usually an extremity), originally ischemic, now infected with a bacteria

Caseous

Necrosis characterized by amorphous granular debris enclosed within a distinct inflammatory border

Liquefactive

Necrosis occurring during ischemia of CNS tissue

Fat Necrosis

Fat destruction most often from pancreatic lipases.

Fat Necrosis

Characterized by shadowy necrotic cell outlines with basophilic calcium deposits.

Dystrophic Calcification

When necrotic tissue (any necrotic tissue) attracts Ca and other minerals, becoming calcified.

Mercury

This element binds to the sulfhydryl groups of the cell membrane increasing membrane permeability and inhibiting ATPase-dependent transport

Cyanide

Compound that blocks oxidative phosphorylation by poisoning mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase

Carbon Tetrachloride

Compound metabolized by CYP450 into a reactive toxic radical species that attacks phospholipids, generating new radicals.

Fatty Liver

The dissociation of ribosomes from the rough ER leads to a decrease in apoprotein synthesis which is responsible for this morphologic change

Tylenol (acetominophen)

A drug that is detoxified first by Cytochrome P450 (via sulfation and glucuronidation) and then by GSH. Toxicity results in hepatocellular necrosis

Apoptosis

Type of cell death observed during embryogenesis.

Apoptosis

Type of cell death observed in the endometrial cell during the menstrual cycle.

Apoptosis

Cells with DNA damage are destroyed by this process.

Apoptosis

Cell death associated with DNA ladder in agarose gel electrophoresis

Necrosis

Cell death associated with neutrophils

Apoptosis

Cell death associated with macrophages

Caspases

Cysteine proteases that inactivate DNases and break up nuclear scaffold and cytoskeleton.

Phosphatidylserine

A normally intracellular phospholipid, flipped extracellularly in an apoptotic cell

Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)

Family of membrane bound receptors that function in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

Extrinsic

Death receptors are associated with this apoptotic pathway.

Bcl-2

Anti-apoptotic protein normally found in mitochondrial membranes and cytoplasm..

growth factors

Anti-apoptotic factors are sustained by this class of peptides

Intrinsic

Apoptotic pathway controlled by the ratio of pro-apoptotic to anti-apoptotic molecules

Intrinsic

Apoptotic pathway characterized by mitochondrial membrane permeability.

p53

Tumor suppressor protein that accumulates when DNA is damaged. It stalls the cell cycle in G1 and can lead to apoptosis if its levels remain high.

Heterophagy

Process of lysosomal digestion of material ingested from the extracellular environment.

Heterophagy

Ingestion of apoptotic bodies by macrophages is an example of this type of lysosomal catabolism

Autophagy

The lysosomal digestion of the cell's own components

Lipofuscin

Undigested material derived from lipid peroxidation

Chloroquine

Drug that inhibits lysosomal enzymes, reducing tissue damage in inflammatory reactions. Used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

Smooth ER

Organelle that will undergo hypertrophy when exposed to toxic chemicals (ethanol, barbituates) over an extended period of time.

Smooth ER

Cellular site of cytochrome P450 detoxification.

Mallory Body

Eosinophilic inculsion in liver cells, termed "alcoholic hyaline."

keratin

Mallory bodies are composed mainly of this intermediate filament and are characteristic of alcoholic liver disease.

Steatosis (fatty change)

An abnormal accumulation of triglycerides within parenchymal cells

Alcohol abuse

The most common cause of significant fatty change in the liver in developed countries.

Fatty change

Decreased synthesis of apoproteins in the liver results in this type of change.

protein

Intracellular hyaline change is attributed to the accumulation of what type of macromolecule.

Extacellular

Hyalinization of the walls of renal arterioles are an example of (intracellular/extracellular) hyaline change

Intracellular

Russell bodies and Mallory bodies are examples of (intracellular/extracellular) hyaline change.

Anthracosis

Accumulation of exogenous carbon particles in the tracheobronchal lymph nodes resulting a blackening of the tissue.

Lipofuscin

Endogenous wear and tear pigment thought to be derived from lipid peroxidation.

Lipofuscin

Yellow-brown, finely granular intracytoplasmic pigment.

Melanin

Endogenous brown-black pigment from the oxidation of dihydroxyphenylalanine

Hemosiderin

Hemoglobin derived golden to yellow-brown pigment. Seen where there is a local excess of iron.

Metastatic calcification

Calcification always related to hypercalcemia secondary to disorder in calcium metabolism.

Dystrophic calcification

Local calcium deposition in dying tissues

Dystrophic

Atherosclerosis is an example of which type of calcification.

Metastatic

Type of calcification found most often in tissues that have an internal alkaline compartment (lungs, kidneys, arteries, pulmonary veins and gastric mucosa)

Telomere

With each replication this portion of the chromosome is thought to shorten eventually arresting the cell cycle.

Telomerase

The RNA-protein complex responsible for adding nucleotides onto the end of chromosomes using its own RNA template.

Telomerase

Active in cancers and germline cells, but inactive in normal somatic cells.

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