Chapter 10 - Cardiovascular, Immune, & Lymphatic Systems & Blood

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heart

muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum (breast bone) and between the lungs. The pumping action of this organ circulates blood throughout the body.

atria

The upper chambers of the heart that receive blood returning from the body through the veins.

ventricle

The lower chambers of the heart that pump blood through the arteries from the heart back to the body tissues.

tricuspid valve

located between the right atrium and right ventricle

mitral valve

located between the left atrium and left ventricle

semilunar valves

pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery between the left ventricle and aorta

pericardium

two-layer sac consisting of an external fibrous and internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart. This layer also covers the heart and is called the epicardium.

epicardium

covers the heart

myocardium

middle, thick, muscular layer

endocardium

inner lining of the heart

blood vessels

tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body

arteries

blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart; oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the body cells

arterioles

smallest arteries

aorta

largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen

veins

blood vessels that carry blood BACK TO THE HEART; waste products

venules

smallest veins

venae cavae

largest veins in the body

capillaries

microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules. Materials are passed between the blood and tissue through capillary walls.

blood

composed of plasma and formed elements such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes

plasma

clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is ~90% water and comprises 55% of the total blood volume

erythrocytes

red blood cells that carry oxygen; developed in the bone marrow

leukocytes

white blood cells tat combat infection and response to inflammation; there are five types

platelets (thrombocytes)

one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process

serum

clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed

lymph

transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph; contains lymphocyte and monocytes and flows in one-way direction to the heart.

lymphatic vesses

transport lymph from body tissues to the chest where it enters the cardiac system

lymph nodes

small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue; filter lymph to keep substances such as bacteria and other foreign agents from entering the blood

spleen

located in the left-side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and diaphragm; the largest lymphatic organ in the body; stores blood and destroys worn out RBCs

thymus gland

important role in the development of the body's immune system (infancy to puberty)

angi/o

vessel (usually refers to blood vessel)

aort/o

aorta

arteri/o

artery

atri/o

atrium

cardi/o

heart

lymphaden/o

lymph node

lymph/o

lymph, lymph tissue

myel/o

bone marrow

phleb/o, ven/o

vein

plasm/o

plasma

splen/o

spleen

thym/o

thymus gland

valv/o, valvul/o

valve

ventricul/o

ventricle

ather/o

yellow, fatty plague

ech/o

sound

electr/o

electricity, electrical activity

isch/o

deficiency, blockage

therm/o

heat

thromb/o

clot

brady-

slow

-ac

pertaining to

-apheresis

removal

-graph

instrument used to record; record

-odynia

pain

-penia

abnormal reduction in number

-poiesis

formation

-sclerosis

hardening

angioma

tumor composed of blood vessels

angiostenosis

narrowing of blood vessel

aortic stenosis

narrowing pertaining to aorta

arteriosclerosis

hardening of arteries

atherosclersosis

hardening of fatty plague

bradycardia

condition of slow heart (< 60 beats/minute)

cardiodynia

pain in the heart

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

cardiomyopathy

disease of the heart muscle

cardiovalvultisis

inflammation of the valves of the heart

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

ischemia

deficiency of blood flow

myocarditis

inflammation of the muscle of the heart

pericarditis

inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart

phlebitis

inflammation of a vein

polyarteritis

inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries

tachycardia

abnormal state of rapid heart (> 100 beats/minute)

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with a clot

hematoma

tumor of blood

multiple myeloma

tumors of bone marrow

pancytopenia

abnormal reduction of all blood cells

thrombosis

abnormal condition of a blood clot

thrombus

blood blot attached to the interior wall of an artery or a vein

lymphadenitis

inflammation of the lymph nodes

lymphadenopathy

disease of the lymph nodes

lymphoma

tumor of lymphatic tissue

splenomegaly

enlargement of the spleen

thymoma

tumor of the thymus gland

acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction

aneurysm

ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall

angina pectoris

chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle

arrythmia

any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern

atrial fibrillation (AFib)

a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria.

cardiac arrest

sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation which requires CPR

cardiac tamponade

acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity

coarctation of the aorta

congential cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta

congenital heart disease

heart abnormality present at birth

congestive heart failure (CHF)

inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen

coronary artery disease (CAD)

a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully; caused by artherosclerosis

coronary occlusion

obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from arthersclerosis.

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body.

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