Unit 1 Nature of Matter

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atoms, elements, molecules, compounds, and mixtures, states of matter, physical and chemical changes

ATOM

smallest particle of an element

ELEMENT

a pure substance made of only one kind of atom

NUCLEUS

the positively charged dense center of an atom

PROTON

a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

NEUTRON

a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

ELECTRON

negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus

ATOMIC NUMBER

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

NEUTRAL

having no net electric charge

ATOMIC MASS

Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

CHEMICAL SYMBOL

a one- or two- letter representation of an element

PURE SUBSTANCE

matter that always has exactly the same composition. Homogeneous

COMPOUND

a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds

MOLECULE

the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance

CHEMICAL FORMULA

a combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance

SUBSCRIPT

a number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound

MIXTURE

A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined

STATE OF MATTER

a physical property that describes matter as a solid, liquid, or gas

SOLID

a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume

LIQUID

A state of matter that has no definite shape but has a definite volume

GAS

A state of matter with no definite shape or volume

MELTING POINT

the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid

VAPORIZATION

the process by which a liquid or solid changes to a gas

BOILING POINT

the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas

CONDENSATION

the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state

FREEZING POINT

the temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid. The freezing point and melting point are EXACTLY the same!

SUBLIMATION

a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid

PLASMA

a state of matter that starts as a gas and then becomes ionized

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