Physiology Vocabulary

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24 terms

myelin sheath

fatty insulating sheath that surrrounds all bu the smallest nerve fibers

motor (efferent nerves)

nerves that carry impulses leaving the brain and spinal cord, and destines foreffectors

brain stem

collectively the mid brain, pons and medulla of the brain

ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

Oligodendrocyte

a type of CNS supporting cell that composes myelin sheaths

nerve

a bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)

basal nuclei (basal ganglia)

specific gray matter areas located deep within the cerebral hemisphere

cerebellum

brain region most involved in producing smooth, coordinated skeletal muscle ctivity

neuron (nerve cell)

cell of nervous system specialized to generate and transmit electrial signals (action portentials and graded potentials)

schwann cell

type of supporting cell in peripheral nervous system forms myelin sheath vital to peripheral nerve fiber regeneration

Node of ranvier(myselin sheath gaps)

gaps between schwann cells

archnoid mater

middle layer of the three meniges (weblike)

synapse

functionsl junction or point of close contact between two nervous or between a neuron and an effector cell

neuron cell body

the biosynthetic center of a neuron also called the perikaryon or soma cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plasmalike fluid that fills the cavities of the SNA and surrounds the CNS externally protects the brain and spinal cord

central sulcus

sulci(furrows); the central sulcus which lies in the frontal plan separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe

cerebral hemisphere

the cerebral hemisphere and the structures of the diencephalon

postsynaptic neuron

the neuron transmitting the electrual signal away from the synapse

presynaptic neuron

the neuron conducting impulses toward th synapse

graded potential

local change in membrane potentail that varies directly with strength of stimulus declines with distance

axon

neuron process that carries impulses away form the nerve cell body; the conducting portion of a nerve cell

dendrite

branching neuron process that serves as a receptive, or input region; transmits an electrical signal toward the cell body

sensory (afferent) nerves

contain process of sensory neurons, carry impulses to CNS

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

plasma like fluid that filled the cavities of the CNS and surrounds the CNS externally; protects the brain and spinal cord

commissure

connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres

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