most of lymph returns to venous circulation by way of the...
left lymphatic duct
skin, complement, interfereon, inflammation
plasma cells are responsible for...
production of circulating antibodies
b cells are responsible for...
suppressor cells act to depress the responses of...
other t and b cells
what must a b lymphocyte bind to to respond to to an antigen?
specific receptors on the lymphocyte membrane
common passageways shared by the pharynx?
respiratory and digestive
where are the palatine tonsils?
walls of the oropharynx
pseudostratified columnar epitheliea
how can the 5 classes of immunoglobulins be classified?
their fixed or constant segment
increase in volume means a decrease in pressure
when diaphragm and external intercostals contract...
the volume of the thorax increases
in a mixture of gases such as air the total P is the sum of the individual pp's of the gases in the mixture
pp O2 in brachial vein
100 mm Hg
pp CO2 in pulmonary vein
40 mm Hg
pneumotaxic center of pons
modifies the rate and depth of breathing
hering breuer reflex
protects lungs from damage due to overinflation
sympathetic stimulation of the smooth muscle layer in the bronchioles causes...
inspiration involving muscular contractions and expiration is passive
elevated H+ ions increases the amount of O2 dischaged by
hemoglobin to peripheral tissues
damage to septal cells would result in...
composition of lymph is similar to..
large lymphoid nodules located in the walls of the pharynx
largest single collection of lymphod tissue in the adult body
what are plasma cells responsible for?
producing circulating immunoglobulins
t cells develop in...
t is to thymus as b is to...
bone marrow derived
phagocytic cells, interferons, physical barriers, histamine, neutrophils, and inflammation
specific defenses depend on...
the activities of lymphcytes
memory tolerance versatility and specificity
stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes are...
concentrated in the red bone marrow
maintainence of body temp greater than 37.2 celcius and 99 fahrenheit
immunity that results from vaccination against the flu
defense of the body agains a particular pathogen
genetically presented at birth
naturally aquired immunity
results from exposure to an antigen in the enviornment
naturally aquired passive
results from antibodies that pass from mother to fetus
cytotoxic t cells
directly responsible for cellular immunity
-can specifically identitify and directly kill disease cells and virus infected cells
responsible for humoral immunity
exposing a rabbit to a viral antigen so it makes antibodies which we purify and inject into a human with the same viral disease
antigen's are digested, phagocytic APC's enguilf pathogens, antigen fragments appear on the apc's surface
helper t cells
secretes lymphokines that regulate immunity
presenting cells in immunity activate t cells, display antigen fragments, and process antigens
functions of respiratory system
exchange gases, protect against enviormental hazards, and ventilate air spaces
what traps particulate matter in inhaled air?
lower respiratory system
bronchi, aveoli, trachea, and larynx
create turbulence in air to trap particulate matter
opening to nostril
common pathway between respiratory and digestive
where do auditory tubes open to?
what divides the nasopharynx from the rest of the pharynx?
connects to oral cavity
ends at esophogus
what moves to change pitch of voice?
thyroid cartilage (largest)
opening to larynx
where are vocal cords located?
ring shaped cartilage inferior to the thyroid cartilage
articulate with the superior border of the cricoid cartilages
pair of ligaments covered by laryngeal epithelium that functions in sound production
airway that connects larynx to broncheal tree
where is choking most common?
right primary bronchus
effects of decreased surfactant
respiratory distress syndrome, avelolar collapse, and increased inspiratory effort
repiratory membrane of glas exchange surfaces
simple squamous epithelium
difference in pp of co2 between venous and arteriol blood is about
5 mm Hg
most oxygen is transported in the blood stream while...
it is bound to hb
most co2 is transported in the blood by...
stimulation of the apneustic center
if the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla is destroyed...
the person would stop breathing
functions of lymphatic system
role in immunity and return fluid from tissues to circulation
process of exchange at capillaries
fluid exits capillaries at,,
arteriole end because of bp
fluid enters capillaries at...
venule end bc of osmotic p
muscular compression and repiratory pump
functions of lymph nodes
add lymphocytes to lymph and purify and cleanse lymph
lymphatic ducts empty lymph in between the...
internal jugular and subclavian vein
major lymphatic vessel in abdomen, much of lymph from digestive tract and recieves lymph from r and l side below diaphragm
large lymph nodes embedded in a mucous membrane that cleanse lymph and add lymphocytes
largest lymphatic organ attached to stomach by a ligamen
functions of spleen
blood processing, stores iron, and lymphocytes
posterior to sternum, produced hormones that stimulate lymphocyte maturation
any substance that stimulates an immune response
where are parts of the antigens displayed?
do not discriminate between antigens. response is always the same.
lymphocyte formation in fetal bone marrow
one population goes to the thymus than to the peripheral tissues and the other remains in the bone marrow where is develops an immunological competence than migrates to the peripheral tissues
2 arms of the immune system
cell mediate immunity and antibody mediated immuniy
cell mediated immunity
activates t cells and phagocytes and direcly physically and chemically attack the antigen
antibody mediated immunity
b cells attack by cirulating the antibodies
3 types of t cells
killer ts, helper ts, supressor t cells
t cells can only recognize antigens when...
they are bound to an apc's plasma membrane
t cell activation
-pathogen is phagocytized by apc
-lysosome fuses with vesicle containing pathogen and digests it
-antigen fragments are displayed by class 2 MHC proteins on plasma membrane
-fragments are bound to class 2 MHC proteins and the endoplasmic reticulum produced class 2 mhc proteins
what do helper t's do?
release cytokines (chemicals)
they grow and divide, activate killer t's, and activate b cells
killer t's recognize target antigens on...
mhc class 1 proteins
how killer t's destory infeced cells
they bind to the infected cell, release perforin, perforin pokes holes so they leak and are destroyed
b cells and humoral immunity are effective against...
free, intact, antigens
b cells divide and differentiate into
plasma cells- produce antibodies
memory cells- remember invadors
specific for each antigen, binding site
base, 5 kinds: iga, igd, ig, igg, ige
how do antibodies work?
neutralize antigen, cause antigen to precipitate, and mark them for phagocytosis
opening between oral cavity and oropharynx
2 tiny cartilages that lie in the tissues of the larynx
functions of the larynx
prevents food from entering laynx, sound production
false vocal cords, prevent foreign material from entering glottis
true vocal cords, involved in sound production
larynx moves upward while...
laryngeal muscles contract, pull on ligaments attached to vocal cords, strech vocal cords, vocal cords vibrate, sound waves
windpipe, 1 in in diameter, 4.5 in long, lined with pseudostratified columnar epithelia, trachialus muscle
inervated by sympathetic nervous system
type 1 avelous
simple squamous epithelium
type 2 avelous
septal cells produce surfactant (phospholipid and protein) decrease surface tension of avelous
involves additional muscles: internal intercostals and abdominal muscles
total atm p due to all gases x % of atm p composed of gas a
po2= 160 mm hg
pco2= .3 mm hg
arteriole: po2= 40 pco2= 45
venule: po2= 100 pco2= 40
arteriole: po2= 100 pco2= 40
venule: po2= 40 pco2= 45
interstital fluid: po2= 40 pco2= 45
binds to hemoglobin
70% of co2
the direction of the rxn
decrease in blood ph
shifts curve to righ
decrease in ph increase in co2 and increase in temp
benefits of shifted curve?
less percent saturation at any given po2 more o2 is unloaded from hb to tissues
co2-- carbonic acid
co2 from body cells in peripheral tissues diffuse through the capillary wall and into the rbc where water is added to it and catabolized by carbonic anhydrase that turns ino carbonic acid which dissociated into h+ and bicarbonate (hco3) the bicarbonate leanes the cell and is replaced by a chloride the h+ binds to a hb and acts as a buffer to preven ph change this preserves electroneutrality
bicarbonate enters the rbc and chloride exits, bicarbonate is added to h+ which had resuloted from H+ and hb. those two come together to form h2co3, from this co2 leaves the cell crosses the capillary wall and goes into the aveoli of the lungs
key respiratory center
respiratory rhythmicity area, controls basic rhythm
dorsal respiratory group
ventral respiration group
decreases inspiration and increases expiration
increases inspiration and decreases expiration
high plasma co2
high co2 stimulates
peripheral chemoreceptors (aortic arch and carotid sinus)
central chemoreceptors (medulla)
decreased co2 decreased drg
decreased respiration rate and depth
low blood ph
herring brewer reflex
detect air volume: refelex: respiration