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WHAT DO SOCIOLOGISTS CALL TWO OR MORE PEOPLE WHO IDENTIFY AND INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER?

SOCIAL GROUP

WHAT IS THE CORRECT SOCIOLOGICAL CONCEPT FOR ALL PEOPLE WITH A COMMON STATUS, SUCH AS "COLLEGE STUDENTS"?

CATEGORY

WHAT CONCEPT REFERS TO A TEMPORARY, LOOSELY FORMED COLLECTION OF PEOPLE WHO MAY OR MAY NOT INTERACT?

SECONDARY GROUP

CHARLES COOLEY REFERRED TO A SMALL SOCIAL GROUP WHOSE MEMBERS SHARE PERSONAL AND ENDURING RELATIONSHIPS USING THE CONCEPT

PRIMARY GROUP

WHAT IS EVERY SOCIETY'S MOST IMPORTANT PRIMARY GROUP?

FAMILY

A SECONDARY GROUP IS A SOCIAL GROUP THAT

PURSUES A SPECIFIC GOAL OR ACTIVITY

NAME CONCEPT THAT REFERS TO GROUP LEADERSHIP THAT EMPHASIZES THE COMPLETION OF TASKS

INSTRUMENTAL LEADERSHIP

WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO GROUP LEADERSHIP THAT EMPHASIZES COLLECTIVE WELL-BEING?

EXPRESSIVE LEADERSHIP

WHICH TYPE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE FOCUSES ON INSTRUMENTAL CONCERNS, MAKING DECISIONS, AND ENSURING GROUP MEMBERS OBEY ORDERS?

AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP

WHICH TYPE OF GROUP LEADER SUPPORTS COLLECTIVE DECISION-MAKING ON AN EGALITARIAN BASIS?

DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP

SOLOMON ASCH'S RESEARCH, IN WHICH SUBJECTS WERE ASKED TO MATCH LINES, SHOWED

MANY SUBJECTS AGREED WITH THE WRONG ANSWERS GIVEN BY OTHERS IN THEIR GROUP

STANLEY MILGRAM'S RESEARCH, IN WHICH SUBJECTS USED A "SHOCK GENERATOR," SHOWED THAT

PEOPLE ARE LIKELY TO FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS NOT ONLY OF LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY FIGURES BUT ALSO OF GROUPS ORDINARY INDIVIDUALS, EVEN IF DOING SO MEANS HARMING ANOTHER PERSONS

WHAT IS GROUPTHINK?

THE TENDENCY OF GROUP MEMBERS TO CONFORM, RESULTING IN A NARROW VIEW OF SOME ISSUE

WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO A SOCIAL GROUP THAT PEOPLE USE AS A POINT OF REFERENCE IN MAKING EVALUATIONS OR DECISIONS

REFERENCE GROUP

WHICH OF CONCEPTS REFER TO A SOCIAL GROUP TOWARD WHICH WE FEEL COMPETITION OR OPPOSITION

OUT-GROUP

WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO A SOCIAL GROUP WITH TWO MEMBERS

DYAD

WHAT IS A TRIAD

A SOCIAL GROUP WITH THREE MEMBERS

DID SIMMEL THINK DYADS WERE BLANK STABLE THAN OTHER TYPES OF GROUPS

MORE

WHICH GROUPS TURN OUTWARD AND WHICH TURN INWARD

A. LARGE GROUPS : INWARD
B. HOMOGENEOUS GROUPS : OUTWARD
C. HETEROGENEOUS GROUPS : INWARD

WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO THE WEAK SOCIAL TIES AMONG PERSONS WHO HAVE LITTLE COMMON IDENTITY AND LITTLE INTERACTION

SOCIAL NETWORK

WHICH OF THE STATEMENTS IS TYPICALLY TRUE OF A SOCIAL NETWORK

NETWORKS ARE "FUZZY" GROUPS CONTAINING PEOPLE WE "KNOW OF" RATHER THAN THOSE WE "KNOW"

LARGE SECONDARY GROUPS ORGANIZED TO ACHIEVE GOALS EFFICIENTLY ARE CALLED

FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS

A MAXIMUM-SECURITY PRISON IS ONE EXAMPLE OF A FORMAL ORGANIZATION THAT IS

COERCIVE ORGANIZATIONS

WHICH TYPE OF FORMAL ORGANIZATION DO PEOPLE TYPICALLY JOIN TO MAKE MONEY

UTILITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS

FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF PARENTS, WHAT TYPE OF FORMAL ORGANIZATION IS A SCHOOL'S PTA?

NORMATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

AN ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL RATIONALLY DESIGNED TO PERFORM TASKS EFFICIENTLY IS A

BUREAUCRACY

WHAT ARE THE TRAITS OF A BUREAUCRACY AS NOTED BY MAX WEBER

SPECIALIZATION, HIERARCHY OF OFFICES, RULES AND REGULATIONS, TECHNICAL COMPETENCE IMPERSONALITY, AND FORMAL, WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS

MAX WEBER ARGUED THAT FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS, WHILE EFFICIENT, HAVE THE ABILITY TO BLANK PEOPLE WITHIN THEM

ALIENATE

THE EMERGENCY ROOM CLERK WHO KEEPS A BLEEDING PATIENT WAITING WHILE FILLING OUT EXTENSIVE PAPERWORK IS A CLASSIC EXAMPLE OF BUREAUCRATIC

INEFFICIENCY

THE TENDENCY OF BUREAUCRATIC ORGANIZATIONS TO PERPETUATE THEMSELVES--THAT IS, TO KEEP THEMSELVES GOING--IS CALLED

BUREAUCRATIC INERTIA

WHICH CONCEPT REFERS TO THE RULE OF THE MANY BY THE FEW

OLIGARCHY

WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM ROSABETH MOSS KANTER'S RESEARCH ABOUT U.S. ORGANIZATIONS

THAT BY EXCLUDING WOMEN AND MINORITIES FROMT HE WORK PLACE IGNORES THE TALENTS OF MORE THAN HALF THE POPULATION

WHAT TRAITS HAVE BEEN DESCRIBED AS A "FEMALE ADVANTAGE"

WOMEN HAVE BETTER COMMUNICATION SKILLS, FLEXIBLE LEADERS, EMPHASIZE THE INTERCONNECTEDNESS OF ALL ORGANIZATIONAL OPERATIONS

WHAT TRAIT DID WILLIAM OUCHI'S INCLUDE IN HIS DESCRIPTION OF FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS IN JAPAN DURING THE 1980S.

HIRED WORKERS IN GROUPS, HIRED WORKERS FOR LIFE, TRAINED WORKERS IN ALL PHASES OF OPERATIONS, "QUALITY CIRCLES", PROVIDED HOME MORTGAGES, SPONSORING RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES, SCHEDULING SOCIAL EVENTS

IN GENERAL, U.S. AND JAPANESE FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS HAVE DIFFERED BECAUSE

U.S. EMPHASIZES INDIVIDUALISM WHILE THE JAPANESE VALUE COOPERATION

NAME THREE WAYS IN WHICH TODAY'S BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS IN THE U.S. DIFFER FROM THOSE A CENTURY AGO

CREATIVE FREEDOM, COMPETITIVE WORK TEAMS, AND A FLATTER ORGANIZATIONS

WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPLES OF MCDONALDIZATION

EFFICIENCY
PREDICTABILITY
UNIFORMITY
CONTROL

WHAT COMES CLOSEST TO THE CORRECT VIEW OF THE ROLE OF BIOLOGY IN CAUSING PEOPLE TO COMMIT CRIMES

BIOLOGICAL THEORY: BIOLOGICAL FACTORS MAY HAVE A REAL BUT SMALL EFFECT IN CAUSING SOME PEOPLE TO COMMIT CRIMES

EMILE DURKHEIM'S BASIC INSIGHT IS THAT DEVIANCE IS

A NECESSARY ELEMENT OF SOCIAL ORGANIZATION, SERVING SEVERAL IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS

NAME THE FUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE NOTED BY EMILE DURKHEIM

DEVIANCE AFFIRMS CULTURAL VALUES AND NORMS
RESPONDING TO DEVIANCE CLARIFIES MORAL BOUNDARIES
RESPONDING TO DEVIANCE BRINGS PEOPLE TOGETHER
DEVIANCE ENCOURAGES SOCIAL CHANGE

WHAT CONCEPT IS USED IN ROBERT MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY OF DEVIANCE TO REFER TO THE PROCESS OF SEEKING CONVENTIONAL GOALS BUT REJECTING CONVENTIONAL MEANS TO GET THERE

INNOVATION

IN HIS STRAIN THEORY, ROBERT MERTON WOULD USE WHAT CONCEPT TO DESCRIBE PEOPLE, INCLUDING ALCOHOLICS AND DRUG ADDICTS, WHO "DROP-OUT"

RETREATISM

IN ROBERT MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY, WHAT CONCEPT CORRECTLY DESCRIBES A PERSON WHO GETS RICH BY COMMITTING FRAUD WHILE WORKING AT A BANK

RITUALISM/INNOVATION

IN HIS STRAIN THEORY, ROBERT MERTON USES WHAT CONCEPT TO DESCRIBE THE BEHAVIOR OF A RADICAL WHO REJECTS CULTURAL GOALS AND MEANS IN FAVOR OF SOME ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM

REBELLION

USING ROBERT MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY, WHAT CONCEPT CORRECTLY DESCRIBES THE BEHAVIOR OF A LOW-PAID, YET COMPULSIVELY CONFORMING BANK TELLER

CONFORMITY

IN HIS SUBCULTURAL THEORY OF DEVIANCE, WALTER MILLER CLAIMED THAT STREET CRIMINALITY IS MOST COMMON AMONG

LOWER-CLASS YOUTH

THE BASIC IDEA BEHIND LABELING THEORY IS THAT

DEVIANCE AND CONFORMITY RESULT NOT SO MUCH FROM WHAT PEOPLE DO AS FROM HOW OTHERS RESPOND TO THOSE ACTIONS

EDWIN SUTHERLAND'S DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY LINKS DEVIANCE TO

THE AMOUNT OF CONTACT WITH OTHERS WHO ENCOURAGE OR REJECT CONVENTIONAL BEHAVIOR
(LEARNED BEHAVIOR)

TRAVIS HIRSCHI'S CONTROL THEORY SUGGESTS WHAT CATEGORY OF PEOPLE WOULD BE MOST LIKELY TO ENGAGE IN DEVIANCE

PEOPLE'S ANTICIPATING THE CONSEQUENCES OF THEIR BEHAVIOR

ACCORDING TO THE SOCIAL-CONFLICT APPROACH, WHAT A SOCIETY LABELS AS DEVIANT IS BASED MOSTLY ON

POWER, COMPETITION, AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY

ALEXANDER LIAZOS SPEAKS FOR THE SOCIAL-CONFLICT APPROACH WHEN HE STATES THAT

THE PEOPLE WE TEND TO DEFINE AS DEVIANTS-THE ONES WE DISMISS AS "NUTS" AND "SLUTS"- ARE TYPICALLY NOT THOSE WHO ARE BAD OR HARMFUL AS MUCH AS THEY ARE POWERLESS

"SOCIAL STRATIFICATION" IS A CONCEPT THAT REFERS TO

A SYSTEM BY WHICH A SOCIETY RANKS CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE IN A HIERARCHY

COMPARING A NUMBER OF SOCIETIES IN HISTORY AND AROUND THE WORLD, WE SEE THAT SOCIAL STRATIFICATION MAY INVOLVE DIFFERENCE IN

INEQUALITY, DIALECT AND AGE

IN WHAT SHARE OF THE WORLD'S SOCIETIES DO WE NOT FIND SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

IN MOST, POVERTY

A CASTE SYSTEM IS DEFINED AS

A SOCIAL STRATIFICATION BASED ON ASCRIPTION, OR BIRTH

THE CONCEPT "MERITOCRACY" REFERS TO SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

BASED ON PERSONAL MERIT

WHY DO CLASS SYSTEMS RETAIN SOME CASTE-LIKE QUALITIES, RATHER THAN BECOMING COMPLETE MERITOCRACIES

TO PROMOTE PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY; BUT AT THE SAME TIME, THEY KEEP CASTE ELEMENT, SUCH AS FAMILY LOYALTY, TO MAINTAIN ORDER AND SOCIAL UNITY

IN ENGLISH HISTORY, THE HEREDITARY NOBILITY OWNED MOST OF

THE LAND

IN ENGLISH HISTORY, THE CONCEPT "PRIMOGENITURE" REFERS TO

REQUIRING THAT ALL PROPERTY PASS TO THE OLDEST SON OR OTHER MALE RELATION

THE CASTE HISTORY OF GREAT BRITAIN IS STILL EVIDENT TODAY IN THE IMPORTANCE PEOPLE THERE ATTACH TO

ROYALTY

AT THE TOP OF THE SYSTEM OF INEQUALITY IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION WERE THE

HIGH GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS, SOVIET INTELLIGENTS

IN RECENT DECADES A NEW CLASS HAS EMERGED IN CHINA, WHICH IS THE

MIXTURE BETWEEN OLD POLITICAL HIERARCHY AND A NEW BUSINESS HIERARCHY

ACCORDING TO THE DAVIS-MOORE THESIS THE REASON THERE IS SOCIAL INEQUALITY IS

BECAUSE IT IS BENEFICIAL FOR SOCIETY

DAVIS AND MOORE POINT OUT THAT AN EGALITARIAN SOCIETY COULD EXIST BUT

ONLY ON THE EXTENT THAT PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO LET ANYONE PERFORM ANY JOB

ACCORDING TO DAVIS AND MOORE, INEQUALITY PROMOTES PRODUCTIVITY BY

REWARDING IMPORTANT WORK WITH INCOME, PRESTIGE, POWER, OR LEISURE ENCOURAGES PEOPLE TO DO THESE THINGS AND TO WORK BETTER, LONGER, AND HARDER

FOLLOWING KARL MARX'S ANALYSIS, WE WOULD EXPECT TO FIND ALIENATION AMONG WHICH CATEGORY OF PEOPLE

PROLETARIANS

MARX PREDICTED THE EVENTUAL VICTORY AND DOMINANCE OF WHICH SOCIAL CLASS

THE WORKING MAJORITY
CLASSLESS SYSTEM

ACCORDING TO KARL MARX, DIFFERENCES IN WEALTH AND POWER BETWEEN THE CAPITALISTS AND PROLETARIANS LEADS TO

CLASS CONFLICT

WHILE THE DAVIS AND MOORE THESIS SUGGESTS "TO EACH ACCORDING TO THE IMPORTANCE OF ONE'S WORK," KARL MARX SUPPORTED THE IDEA

THE PROLETARIANS HAVE NOTHING TO LOSE BU THEIR CHAINS. THEY HAVE A WORLD TO WIN

WHY HAS NO SOCIAL REVOLUTION TAKE PLACE IN THE US AS KARL MARX PREDICTED

CAPITALISM IS STILL THRIVING

KARL MARX BELIEVED THAT SOCIALISM WOULD END SOCIAL STRATIFICATION BY ABOLISHING PRIVATE PROPERTY WHAT WAS WEBER'S VIES

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AS INVOLVING THREE DISTINCT DIMENSIONS OF INEQUALITY

ACCORDING TO SIMON KUZNETS, IN WHICH TYPE OF SOCIETY IS SOCIAL STRATIFICATION GREATEST

HIGH-INCOME NATIONS THAT HAVE PASSED THROUGH THE INDUSTRIAL ERA
AGRARIAN

EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT, AS THE US MOVES INTO THE POST-INDUSTRIAL PHASE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, ECONOMIC INEQUALITY IS

INCOME

LOOKING AROUND THE WORLD TODAY, INCOME INEQUALITY IS GREATEST IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING REGIONS

LATIN AMERICA AND AFRICA

ACCORDING TO THE US GOVERNMENT THE MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME IN 2006 WAS

58,407

THE HIGHEST-EARNING 20 PERCENT OF ALL US FAMILIES ACCOUNT FOR WHAT PERCENTAGE OF ALL INCOME

48.5 %

IN THE US THE WEALTHIEST 20 PERCENT OF FAMILIES OWN ABOUT HOW MUCH OF THE COUNTRY'S PRIVATELY OWNED WEALTH

85%

THE WEALTHIEST 1 PERCENT OF US FAMILIES CONTROL ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE NATION'S PRIVATELY HELD WEALTH

35%

THE LOWEST-RANKING 40 PERCENT OF US FAMILIES HAS ABOUT

NO WEALTH AT ALL, THEY VIRTUALLY ALL LIVE IN DEBT

AS OF 2006 IN THE US ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF ADULTS OVER THE AGE OF TWENTY-FIVE WERE COLLEGE GRADUATES

28%

ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE RICHEST PEOPLE IN THE US GAINED THEIR FORTUNES MOSTLY FROM INHERITANCE

ONE-THIRD

POPULAR AUTHOR J.K. ROWLING HAS EARNED A FORTUNE WITH HER BOOKS. ROWLING IS A MEMBER OF WHICH SOCIAL CLASS

LOWER-UPPERS

ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE US POPULATION IS OFFICIALLY COUNTED BY THE GOVERNMENT AS POOR

36 MILLION OR 12.3 PERCENT OF POPULATION

PEOPLE OF LOW SOCIAL POSITION ARE MORE LIBERAL ON BLANK ISSUES AND MORE CONSERVATIVE ON BLANK ISSUES

ECONOMIC
SOCIAL

THE INCOME OF AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE US

62 PERCENT

IN TERMS OF RACE, TWO-THIRDS OF ALL POOR PEOPLE IN THE US ARE

WHITE

THE "FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY" REFERS TO THE FACT THAT, IN THE US

THE TREND OF WOMEN MAKING UP AN INCREASING PROPORTION OF THE POOR

THE ANTHROPOLOGIST OSCAR LEWIS SUGGESTED THE CAUSE OF POVERTY LIES IN

A CULTURE OF POVERTY, A LOWER-CLASS SUBCULTURE THAT CAN DESTROY PEOPLE'S AMBITION TO IMPROVE THEIR LIVES

SOCIOLOGIST WILLIAM JULIUS WILSON SUGGESTS THE CAUSE OF POVERTY LIES IN

THAT SOCIETY IS PRIMARILY RESPONSIBLE FOR POVERTY

GOVERNMENT DATA SHOW THAT ABOUT WHAT SHARE OF THE HEADS OF POOR HOUSEHOLDS IN THE US DID NOT WORK AT ALL IN THE LAST YEAR

18%

ROUGH ESTIMATES SUGGEST THAT ABOUT BLANK PEOPLE IN THE US ARE HOMELESS FOR SOME TIME IN A GIVEN YEAR

754,000 (PEOPLE LIVING IN SHELTERS, TRANSITIONALLY HOUSE, AND ON THE STREET)
3 MILLION (PEOPLE HOMELESS FOR AT LEAST ONE NIGHT IN A GIVEN YEAR)

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