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methode clinique

Piaget's data collection method that is a semi-structured interview technique in which subjects' answers to questions often determine what the next question will be

assimilation

According to Piaget, occurs when new experiences are readily incorporated into a child's existing theories; Using activities or previous knowledge learned or present at birth to react to situation; Requires change in schema

E.g.--Dogs lick you

adaptation

Central Piagetian process by which changes in an organism is a response to the environment; Involves assimilation & accomodation

accommodation

For Piaget, occurs when a child's theories are modified based on experience; Change based on understanding

E.g.--Child surprised to encounter cat, so revises theory of dogs to accommodate for new idea of a cat

equilibration

Piaget: The processes or tendencies that lead to the balance between assimilation & accommodation, an equilibrium; Too much assimilation = No new learning; Too much accomodation (changes) = Chaotic behavior

action

Piaget: "Intelligence exists in ______"
Intelligence defined by interactions of an individual with the environment by assimilating & accommodating cognitive structure, in response to environmental demands

substages

6 ________ of Piaget's Sensorimotor Stage:
1. Reflexes (0 to 1 month)
2. Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months)
3. Secondary Circular Reaction (4-8 months)
4. Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months)
5. Tertiary Circular Reaction (12-18 months)
6. Early Representational Thought (18-24 months)

reflexes

Substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor; From 0 to 1 month where the child understands the environment purely through inborn reflexes such as sucking and looking.

primary

Substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor: 1-4 months: _____ Circular Reactions: This substage involves coordinating sensation and new schemas. For example, a child may such his or her thumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasurable.

secondary

Substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor: _____ Circular Reactions: 4-8 months; During this substage, the child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. For example, a child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth.

coordination

Substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor: ____________ of Reactions: 8 to 12 months: During this substage, the child starts to show clearly intentional actions. The child may also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect. Children begin exploring the environment around them and will often imitate the observed behavior of others. The understanding of objects also begins during this time and children begin to recognize certain objects as having specific qualities. For example, a child might realize that a rattle will make a sound when shaken.

tertiary

Substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor: _________ Circular Reactions: 12-18 months; Children begin a period of trial-and-error experimentation during the fifth substage. For example, a child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver.

early

Substage of Piaget's Sensorimotor: ________ Representational Thought: 18-24 months; Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world in the final sensorimotor substage. During this time, children begin to move towards understanding the world through mental operations rather than purely through actions.

preconceptual

Substage of Piaget's Preoperational: ___________ Thinking: 2-4 years; Child is unable to understand all the properties of classes; Transductive Reasoning

transductive

Reasoning that goes from one specific to another

deductive

Reasoning that goes from general to specific

intuitive

Substage of Piaget's Preoperational: __________ Thinking; 4 to 7 years; Perception plays role through lack of conservation, egocentrism, etc.

concrete

_________ operations stage; 7-12 years: According to Piaget, children are able to understand rules as reversibility, identity, & compensation, form of egocentrism; classification , seriating, number, etc.

formal

_______ operations; Piaget's stage; After age of 11 or 12; Formal, Hypothetical Operations & thinking, combinatorial analysis (test tube task), etc.

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