relatively permanent changes in an employee's knowledge or skill that result from experience.
the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem.
the knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices and less experienced people.
knowledge that is easily communicated and available to everyone.
what employees can typically learn only through experience.
Contingencies of reinforcement
four specific consequences used by organizations to modify employee behavior.
occurs when a positive outcome follows a desired behavior.
occurs when an unwanted outcome is removed following a desired behavior.
occurs when an unwanted outcome follows an unwanted behavior.
occurs when there is the removal of a consequence following an unwanted behavior.
Schedules of reinforcement
the timing of when contingencies are applied or removed.
is the simplest schedule and happens when a specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired behavior.
Fixed interval schedule
reinforcement occurs at fixed time periods.
Variable interval schedule
designed to reinforce behavior at more random points in time.
Fixed ratio schedules
reinforce behaviors after a certain number of them have been exhibited.
Variable ratio schedules
reward people after a varying number of exhibited behaviors.
Social learning theory
argues that people in organizations have the ability to learn through the observation of others.
when employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior.
building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence.
focus on demonstrating their competence so that others think favorably of them.
focus on demonstrating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them.
decisions that become somewhat automatic because people's knowledge allows them to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action that needs to be taken.
can be described as emotionally charged judgments that arise through quick, nonconscious, and holistic associations.
a change - whether sudden or evolving - that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediately.
decisions made by employees when a problem is new, complex, or not recognized.
Rational decision-making model
a step-by-step approach to making decisions that is designed to maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives.
the notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision.
results when decision makers select the first acceptable alternative considered.
the tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations.
the faulty perception by decision makers that others think, feel, and act the same way as they do.
Social identity theory
holds that people identify themselves by the groups to which they belong and perceive and judge others by their group memberships.
occurs when assumptions are made about others on the basis of their membership in a social group.
simple, efficient, rules of thumb that allow us to make decisions more easily.
the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easier to recall.
Fundamental attribution error
argues that people have a tendency to judge others' behaviors as due to internal factors.
occurs when we attribute our own failures to external factors and our own successes to internal factors.
Escalation of commitment
the decision to continue to follow a failing course of action.
represents a systematic effort by organizations to facilitate the learning of job-related knowledge and behavior.
the exchange of knowledge between employees.
Behavior modeling training
a formalized method of training in which employees observe and learn from employees with significant amounts of tacit knowledge.
Communities of practice
groups of employees who work together and learn from one another by collaborating over an extended period of time.
Transfer of training
occurs when the knowledge, skills, and behaviors used on the job are maintained by the learner once training ends and generalized to the workplace once the learner returns to the job.
Climate of transfer
an environment that can support the use of new skills.