Academic self - concept
Is further divided into specific school subject areas such as math, science, English, and social studies. More recently, developmentalists have proposed the addition of other components such as artistic self- concept.
Non academic self - concept
Divided into social, emotional, and physical self- concepts. The last domain is further subdivided into physical ability and physical appearance.
Means that people observe the performance of others and use it as a basis for evaluating their own abilities and accomplishments.
Self - enhancing bias
Most people are motivated to maintain moderately positive beliefs about themselves.
Piaget's stages of moral development. He proposed that preschoolers seem unconcerned about established rules or standards, making up their own.
Piaget's stages of moral development.Children regard rules as immutable, existing outside the self, and requiring strict adherence. The letter of the law must be followed, and failure to do so requires punishment. Is based on the child's experiences in relationships with parents and other authority figures, where rules seem to come from above and must be obeyed.
Piaget's stages of moral development. Children begin to understand that rules are based on social agreements and can be changed. Advancements in perspective- taking skills, which also are benefited by interactions with peers, help young people understand that rules and standards are not just a function of authoritarian dictates but that they promote fair play and cooperation, serving to establish justice.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. Roughly corresponding to Piaget's heteronomous level, in which what is right is what avoids punishment, what conforms to the dictates of authority, or what serves one's personal interests.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. Young adolescents, more consistent with Piaget's autonomous level, in which what is right depends on others' approval or on the need to maintain social order.
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development. Adulthood (not all), right is defined by universal principles or by standards of justice, not by the particular rule in question.
More arbitrary and variable from one culture to another and are a function of social agreement, such as rules about appropriate dress, forms of address, and table manners.
Morality of justice
Justice focus. Rules, Boundaries, structure in a situation.
Morality of caring
Reference is to others, focus on social participation, self - sacrifice, and responsibility for protection of the dependent and unequal.
Prosocial behavior (altruism)
When a child voluntarily acts in ways that seem intended to benefit someone else. Although these behaviors are observed even in toddlers, they tend to increase with age, from preschool to grade school ages and continuing into adolescence. Altruistic tendencies are different from one child to another, and individual differences tend to be somewhat stable across age.
Limitations Kohlberg's theory
He worked in a Kantian tradition that emphasizes abstract rights and principles of justice rather than interconnectedness, a sense of unit with others or with all of life.
Male - oriented
Limitations Gilligan's theory
Focus on interpersonal relationships of daily life, not the powerful legal system.