A&P Chapter 18 - The Respiratory System

Created by JGrayRoberts 

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which of the following belongs to the respiratory portion of the lower respiratory system

alveolar ducts

the exchange of gases between blood & cells is called

internal respiration

which of the following does NOT belong to the conducting portion of the respiratory system

alveolar ducts

the internal part of the nose is connected through the

internal nares

the nasal cavity is lined with

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

the palatine tonsils are found in the

oropharynx

the structure with openings to the Eustachian tubes is the

nasopharynx

the nasal cavity is divided into right and left sides by the

nasal septum

which of the following is called the Adam's apple?

thyroid cartilage

the structure which closes off the larynx is the

epiglottis

the greater the pressure of air against the vocal cords,

the louder the sound

false vocal cords

Mucosal folds superior to the true vocal cords, Have no part in sound production

which of the following describes a correct order of structures in the respiratory system

pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

the C-shaped rings that provide support for the wall of the trachea are made of

hyaline cartilage

Histamine

causes bronchiole constriction

Epinephrine

causes bronchiole dilation

the pain of pleurisy is caused by

friction between the swollen membranes

which of the following is NOT a structure associated with the lungs

endocardium

the exchange of gases occurs in the

alveoli

Surfactant is produced by

Surfactant-secreting cells

which of the following divides into alveolar ducts

respiratory bronchioles

for air to enter the lungs during inspiration

the pressure inside the lungs must become lower than the atmospheric pressure

the lungs contain @ ________ alveoli

300 million

the volume of air that can be exhaled after normal exhalation is the

expiratory reserve volume

the volume of air in a normal breath is called

tidal volume

total lung capacity equals

TV+IRV+ERV+RV

gas exchange in the lungs happens by the process of

diffusion

all of the following decrease the efficiency of external respiration EXCEPT

increased alveolar PO2

most O2 in the blood is transported

as oxyhemoglobin

nerve impulses travel from the active inspiratory area to the diaphragm via the

phrenic nerve

@ how much CO2 in the blood is carried as bicarbonate

almost 80%

when stretch receptors in the lungs are activated

expiration will occur, the lungs will deflate, the inspiratory area is inhibited, impulses are sent along the vagus nerve

the basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by the

medulla oblongata

painful or labored breathing is referred to as

dyspnea

a disorder characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls is

emphysema

respiration rates are controlled mainly by the

medulla oblongata & pons and the amount of CO2 in the blood

the vocal cords are located in the

larynx

cartilaginous rings

make the trachea rigid to keep the airway open, make the bronchi rigid to keep them open, are C shaped in the trachea and allow the esophagus to expand behind it, are not found in the esophagus

breathing is controlled by the respiratory center(s) located in the

medulla oblongata & pons

the flap of cartilage that closes off the larynx and prevents food and water from entering the larynx during swallowing is the

epiglottis

which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system

transport of nutrients to tissue

which of the following communicates with the laryngopharynx

larynx, oropharynx, esophagus

which of the following affect the release of O2 from hemoglobin

the following affect the release of O2 - partial pressure of O2, temperature, acidity & exercise, CO2 in the tissue

carbon monoxide

binds to heme in the hemoglobin, binds more strongly than O2 does

smoking can cause

lung cancer, emphysema, smoker's cough and bronchitis, increased mucous

changes in the respiratory system during exercise include all but which of the following

less CO2 is produced

the vital capacity can decrease by as much as ________% by the age of 70

23%

external nares

nostrils

the mucous membrane of the larynx forms _____ pairs of folds

2

t/f the trachea is located lateral to the esophagus

false

t/f tertiary bronchi divide into terminal bronchioles

false

t/f the first step of respiration is external respiration

false

the narrow top portion of the lung is called the

apex

the right lung is divided into how many lobes

three

in order for respiration to occur, the volume of the lung needs to be

increased

name the sections of the nasal cavity and how they are divided

top, middle & bottom by nasal conchae and into right & left sides by the nasal septum

the purpose of the nasal cavity is to

circulate air to warm, cleanse, examine and moisten it

the pressure inside the lungs is the

alveolar pressure

spirogram

the record of pulmonary volumes and capacities

t/f in clinical practice ventilation means inspiration only

false

the transport of respiratory gases between the lungs and body tissues is the function of the

blood

during inspiration, the diaphragm

contracts and drops, expanding thoracic cavity size and decreases its pressure

during expiration

volume decreases and pressure increase forcing air out

if alveolar PCO2 is low, CO2 will

diffuse from the capillary blood into the alveoli

the _______ lung is smaller than the _______ lung due to position of the heart

right lung is smaller than left

parietal pleural membrane lines the thoracic cavity while the _________ pleural membrane covers the lung

visceral pleural membrane

t/f cigarette smoke is the single most preventable cause of death and disability worldwide

true

cancer of the larynx is found almost exclusively in people who do/did what

smoke(d)

hypocania is caused from

voluntary hyperventilation and is very dangerous as the O2 level may drop dangerously low and cause fainting

laryngopharynx

lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus

bronchial tree

The bronchi and all their branches that function as passageways between the trachea and the alveoli

pleural membrane

membrane that encloses the lungs within the rib cage

terminal bronchioles

finest conducting branches of respiratory passageways.

Heimlich maneuver

an emergency procedure to help someone who is choking because food is lodged in the trachea

bronchoscopy

examination of the bronchi with a bronchoscope

when the diaphragm contracts it

flattens

the term applied to normal quiet breathing is

eupnea

the phospholipids produced by the alveolar cells are called

surfactant

the total volume of air taken in during one minute is called the

minute volume of respiration

the air that remains in the lungs after the expiratory reserve volume is expelled is the

residual volume

the sum of residual volume plus expiratory reserve volume is the

functional residual capacity

the _________ area controls the basic rhythm of respiration

medullary rhythmicity

the passive process by which air flows into and out of the lungs is called

ventilation

the protective mechanism that prevents overinflation of the lungs is called

inflation reflex

a slow rate and depth of respiration is called

hypoventilation

the temporary cessation of breathing is known as

apnea

the structure that prevents food from entering the respiratory passages is the

epiglottis

the chemosensitive area is located in the

medulla oblongata

CO2 can be carried by hemoglobin as

carbaminohemoglobin

the immediate increase in ventilation at the onset of exercise is a result of stimulation of the

proprioceptors

rhinitis

an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose (usually associated with nasal discharge)

emphysema

hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls

respiratory distress syndrome

condition that can occur in a premature infant in which the lungs are not matured to the point of manufacturing lecithin, a pulmonary surfactant, resulting in a collapse of the alveoli, which leads to cyanosis and hypoxia

sudden infant death syndrome

completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant. The most common cause of death between the second week and first year of life (crib death).

pulmonary embolism

blockage of a branch of pulmonary artery that will stop blood flow to a group of lobules or alveoli.

epistaxis

nosebleed

pulmonary edema

fluid accumulation in the interstitial spaces and alveoli of the lungs

hemoptysis

spitting up blood from the respiratory tract

asphyxia

a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis

dyspnea

difficult or labored respiration

orthopnea

form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect

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