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Anterior Interventricular Sulcus

groove on the anterior superior surface of the heart, marking the location of the septum between the two ventricles.

Aortic Semilunar Valve

Structure between the Left Ventricle and the Aorta that prevents backflow of blood

Apex

the lowest superficial part of the heart. the pointed end of the heart which extends slightly to the left and rests on the diaphragm

Atrium (LEFT)

The upper right chamber of the heart. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it down into the left ventricle which delivers it to the body.

Atrium (RIGHT)

The right upper chamber of the heart. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava and pumps it into the right ventricle which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated.

Auricle

A small conical pouch that projects from each atrium of the heart

Base

the portion of the heart opposite the apex. It is superior and medially located. It forms the upper border of the heart, lies just below the second rib, and primarily involves the left atrium, part of the right atrium, and the proximal portions of the great vessels.

Bicuspid (MITRAL) Valve

It is present between the left atrium and the left ventricle and allows unidirectional flow of oxygenated blood from atrium to ventricle. It consists of two flaps as cusps.

Chordae Tendineae

These are tendinous chords that connect the cusps of the atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles on the walls of the ventricles. Functionally they are important because they help prevent prolapse of the AV valves. Also known as "heart strings"

Endocardium

innermost layer of the heart wall consisting of epithelium and connective tissue as well as some specialized muscle tissue.

Epicardium

The inner layer of the pericardium, a conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels.

Interventricular Septum

The structure that separates the right and left ventricles

Myocardium

The middle layer of the muscle. The thickest of the 3 layers. It is composed of cardiac muscle. This layer produces the heart contraction.

Papillary Muscle

one of the small bundles of muscles attached to the ventricle walls and to the chordae tendineae that tighten these tendons during ventricular contraction.

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve

Valve that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has 3 cusps. Blood flows from the right ventricle throught the pulmonary valve to become oxygenated

Trabeculae Carneae

any one of the irregular bands and bundles of muscle projecting from the inner surfaces near the apex of the ventricles of the heart.

Tricuspid Valve

valve with three cusps. situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle; allows blood to pass from atrium to ventricle and closes to prevent backflow when the ventricle contracts

Ventricle (LEFT)

The left lower chamber of the heart that receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it out under high pressure through the aorta to the body

Ventricle (RIGHT)

The lower right chamber of the heart that receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it under low pressure into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

Anterior Interventricular Artery

"Anterior" on the outside of the heart; an artery that is a branch off of the left coronary artery (vertically below it)

Aorta

The largest artery in teh body; it carries oxygenated blood away from the left ventricle of the heart.

Circumflex Artery

This supplies blood to the left atrium & left ventricle and the lateral & posterior surfaces of the left ventricle.

Coronary Sinus

a large thin-walled vein that lies in the posterior portion of the coronary sulcus, it empties into the right atrium

Coronary Sulcus

Deep groove that marks boundary of atria and ventricles; there is an anterior and posterior interventricular sulcus; marks boundry between left and right

Great Cardiac Vein

beginning at the apex of the heart and ascending along the anterior interventricular sulcus to the base of the ventricles. It then curves left in the coronary sulcus, reaches the back of the heart, and opens into the left part of the coronary sinus. It receives various tributaries from the left atrium. The great cardiac vein drains the blood through its tributaries from the capillaries of the myocardium.

Inferior Vena Cava

is the large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower half of the body into the right atrium of the heart.

Left Coronary Artery

arises from the left aortic sinus; supplies the left side of the heart

Marginal Artery

Artery that branches off the right coronary artery near the small cardiac vein

Middle Cardiac Vein

one of the five tributaries of the coronary sinus that drain blood from the capillary bed of the myocardium. It starts at the apex of the heart, rises in the posterior interventricular sulcus, receives tributaries from both ventricles, and ends in the right extremity of the coronary sinus.

Posterior Interventricular Artery

A branch of the right coronary artery, lies in the posterior interventricular sulcus and supplies blood to the posterior and inferior part of the heart.

Pulmonary Artery

one of two arteries (branches of the pulmonary trunk) that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary Trunk

the artery that carries venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart and divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary Vein

any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

Right Coronary Artery

originates above the right cusp of the aortic valve. It travels down the right atrioventricular groove, towards the crux of the heart.

Small Cardiac Vein

one of the five tributaries of the coronary sinus that drain blood from the myocardium. It conveys blood from the back of the right atrium and the right ventricle.

Superior Vena Cava

large vein which receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart

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