A&P Chapter 13 - The Endocrine System

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what system works closely with the endocrine system

nervous system

adrenals, parathyroid glands, pineal gland and pituitary glands are what kind of glands

endocrine

what organs contain hormone producing cells

stomach, liver, skin

cAMP

a second messenger in the action of many water-soluble hormones such as peptides

hormones that bind to receptors within the target cells are

lipid soluble

PTH & calcitonin

hormones that regulate blood Ca levels

oxytocin

under certain circumstances is regulated by positive feedback

the infundibulum attaches the pituitary gland to

the hypothalmus

LH

stimulates testosterone production by the testes

epinephrine

hormone released in response to a nerve impulse

HGH, FSH, ACT & prolactin

hormones of the anterior pituitary

MSH

hormone which effects skin pigment

GH

release in response to hypoglycemia

IGH is released in response to

HGH

hormone produced by neurosecretory cells

antidiuretic hormone

hypothalmus

produces antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

oxytocin

hormone released in large quantities just before childbirth

controls the production and release of glucocoticoids

ACTH

calcitonin is a hormone of the

thyroid gland

follicular cells produce

thyroxine

hormone released in response to low blood Ca levels is

parathyroid hormone

what does calcitonin inhibit the action of

osteoclasts

mineralcorticoids

are produced in the adrenal cortex, are steroid hormone and help regulate the homeostasis of Na & P

glucocorticoids are steroid hormones produced by

adrenal gland

adrenal medulla

endocrine gland directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system

fight or flight

epinephrine & norepinephrine

pancreas

classified as an endocrine and an exocrine gland

beta cells secrete

insulin

glucogon

accelerates the conversion of glycogen into glucose

progesterone and estrogen

develop and maintenance of female sex characteristics

FSH secretion is inhibited by

inhibin

melatonin is a hormone of the

pineal gland

prostoglandins

act as local hormones, help induce inflammation, are important in fat metabolism

the resistance reaction

he second stage of the stress response

gigantism

oversecretion of hGH during childhood

diabetes insipidus

insufficient ADH

Cushing's syndrome

oversecretion of glucocorticoids

decline in the number of pancreatic beta cells is characteristic for

type 1 diabetes

target cells

respond to a particular hormone

hormone secretion is controlled by what

nerve impulses, circulating chemicals, releasing hormones, inhibiting hormones

what does ACTH control

activities of the adrenal cortex

growth hormone does what

stimulates cells to grow and divide

where is glucagon produced

in the alpha cells of the pancreas

insulin is secreted by the pancreas after a meal to

decrease the concentration of blood glucose

an adult who over secretes GH doesn't grow taller. Why

epiphyseal plates are closed in adults

thyroxine is not produced in large amounts because

under normal circumstances it is under negative feedback control

what systems are responsible for fight or flight response

hypothalmus, sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medullae

when does thyroid hormone secretion slow down

as we age

insulin resistance

unresponsiveness of cells to the effect of insulin, reducing their ability to absorb glucose, resulting in hyperglycemia

why is abdominal fat riskier than other adipose tissue

fat cells in the abdomen are more metabolically active and responsive to hormones

type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol and abdominal fat are categorized as

metabolic syndrome

the nervous system and endocrine system regulate

homeostasis

steroid hormones are the derivatives of cholesterol

hormone secretion is primarily regulated by negative feedback

some glands produce hormones in response to signals from the

autonomic nervous system

hormones from the hypothalmus control the release of what

hGH from the anterior pituitary

another term for Vasopressin is

antidiuretic hormone

alcohol inhibits ADH and increases what

urine output

aldosterone secretion is controlled by

renin-angiotensin pathway

stressor

any stimulus that produces a stress response

which gland is largest when we are infants and is replaced by connective and adipose tissue as we age

the thymus gland

exhaustion may occur

if the resistance stage of stress response fails to combat the stressor

pheochromocytoma

benign tumor of the adrenal medulla

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