Chapter 18.1 and 18.2 - Classification

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How are living thing organized for study?

Biologists use a classification system to name organisms and group them in a logical manner

Taxonomy

Scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accept the name

What is Linnaeus's system of classifciation?

Includes seven levels (smallest to largest) --> species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom

Binomial Nomenclature

Developed by Carolus Linnaeus; it is a two-word naming system; each species is assigned a two-part scientific name; always written in italics and the first word is capitalized and the second word is lowercased

Taxon

Group or level of organization into which organisms are classified

Family

Group of genera that share many characteristics

Order

Griyo if similar families

Class

Group of similar orders

Phylum

Group of closely related classes

Kingdom

Large taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla

How are evolutinary relationships important in classification?

Biologists now group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent, or phylogeny, not just physical similarities

How can DNA and RNA help scientists determine evolutionary relationships?

The genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level; similarities in DNA can be used to help determine classification and evolutinary relationships

Phylogeny

Evolutionary relationships among organisms

Evolutionary Classification

The strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history

Derived Character

Characteristics that appear in recent parts of a lineage but not in its older members

Cladogram

A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms

Molecular Clock

Uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently

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