World War I

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Information regarding World War I.

1914-1918

Years of World War I.

Militarism, Alliances, Nationalism, Imperialism, Assassination

Causes of World War I.

Black Hand

Serbian terrorist group responsible for assassinating Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

militarism

Policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war.

Germany

Country with greatest increase in military expenditures between 1910 and 1914.

alliances

Agreements between nations to aid and protect one another.

Austria-Hungary; Serbia

Original participants in World War I.

nationalism

Pride or devotion in one's country.

Pan-Germanism

Movement to unify the people of all German-speaking countries.

Pan-Slavism

Movement to unify all Slavic people of Eastern Europe.

imperialism

One country dominating over another country economically and politically.

trade, resources, power/pride

Three significant aspects of imperialism.

assassination

Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Sarajevo, Bosnia

Location of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Duchess Sophie

Duchess of Austria-Hungary assassinated with Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

28 June 1914

Date of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Gavrilo Princip

Assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Powers in the pre-war Triple Alliance.

Great Britain, France, Russia

Powers in the pre-war Triple Entente.

Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, Ottoman Empire

Four countries known as the "Central Powers."

France, Great Britain, Russia

Three of 27 countries known as the "Allies."

neutrality

Nonparticipation in a dispute or war.

Pals battalions

Groups of men who worked or lived together joining the army to fight together.

7 years

Length of full-time service in the British military.

5 years

Length of time in the British National Reserve.

attestation

Filling out forms, receiving medical examinations, and 'taking the King's shilling' before returning home and receiving instructions.

tommy

Slang for a British soldier.

6 to 8 weeks

Length of basic training and specialized training.

posters

Media commonly used for propaganda.

justification, men, money, resources

Four aims of propaganda.

conscription

The drafting of soldiers into the military.

Schlieffen Plan

German invasion of France around Paris via Belgium.

First Battle of the Marne

1914 battle on the Western Front with France against Germany, resulting in a French victory.

Battle of Tannenberg

Battle on the Eastern Front with Russia against Germany, resulting in a German victory.

Battle of Galicia

Battle on the Eastern Front with Russia against Austria-Hungary, resulting in a Russian victory.

Battle of Verdun

1916 battle on the Western Front with France against Germany, resulting in a stalemate.

Battle of Gallipoli

Battle at the Middle Eastern Theater with Britain and France against the Ottoman Empire, resulting in an Ottoman victory.

Second Battle of the Marne

Battle on the Western Front with France, Britain, United States, and Italy against Germany, resulting in an allied victory.

Battle of Somme

Battle on the Western Front with Britain and France against Germany, with an indecisive result.

Western front

Frontier between Germany and France, primarily.

Eastern front

Frontier between Germany and Russia, primarily.

stalemate

Battle with no decisive winner.

No Man's Land

Dangerous territory between the trenches on the Western front.

stand to

Morning guard against dawn raids.

morning hate

Morning ritual where both sides would relieve tension with machine gun fire or shelling and small arms fire, directed at no particular target.

rats, frogs, lice, trench fever, trench foot

Five challenges inside trenches.

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Leader of Germany during World War I.

King George V

Leader of the United Kingdom during World War I.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Archduke of Austria and heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne before World War I.

Gavrilo Princip

Member of the Black Hand who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Lord Kitchener

Organizer of British volunteer army, appearing on propaganda posters.

Woodrow Wilson

President of the United States during World War I.

RMS Lusitania

Boat sunk by German U-boats killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people on board.

Zimmerman note

Diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States.

German collapse

Result of the entering of the United States into the war.

armistice

Agreement to end fighting on the Western front.

Fourteen Points

Woodrow Wilson's plan for peace following World War I delivered to Congress.

Paris Peace Conference

1919 conference of Allied victors to discuss dealing with Germany and the other defeated nations.

Treaty of Versailles

Treaty ending war between Germany and the Allied powers, assigning blame to Germany in Article 231.

Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary

8 new countries in Europe.

Big Bertha

43-ton German howitzer used to destroy forts.

mustard gas

A toxic war gas with sulfide based compounds that raises blisters and attacks the eyes and lungs.

chlorine gas

A toxic war gas that acts as a choking agent, searing the lining of the respiratory tract.

zeppelins

Floating airships that the Germans used to drop bombs, despite their vulnerability to being shot down.

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