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Claude Bernard

Famous for his discoveries about the pancreas and its role in digestion; Set up his experiments with different possible results so that the result of the experiment would give a conclusive statistical answer to the problem; Studied the nervous system and the digestive system thoroughly; Studied diabetes; suggested that sugar in the blood was not always a symptom of the disease; Discovered that the vasomotor nerves regulated the blood supply to the organs; working with curare, he found that it attacked the motor nerves only; proposed that nerves could be identified as motor or sensory; suggested that animal vivisection was more acceptable than experimentation on humans; pointed out that repeatability of experiments with animals should be expected

Elizabeth Blackwell

First female doctor in the United States; Born Quaker; family moved to Ohio run a sugar refinery without slave labor; Accepted at Geneva College in NY after student vote because they thought it was a hoax; endured a lot of ridicule; Could not practice in the US; advised to go to Paris; contracted a serious eye infection from a baby and had to have it removed and replaced with a fake one; During the Civil War, she trained women to nurse soldiers of the Union Army; In England, she started the Women's Medical College with Florence Nightingale; Wrote several books after retirement

George Washington Carver

Kidnapped by Confederate night-raiders as a child and ransomed back; Had to go to another county to attend school in Missouri because there were no nearby black schools; first black faculty member at Iowa State; Became the director of agriculture at Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute for Negroes; There began research on peanut; developed 300 uses for peanuts; major contribution was training farmers to rotate their crops; Stayed at Tuskegee even when got better offers; only patented three discoveries; became a member of the Royal Society in England; gave the Institute his life savings to establish a foundation for agricultural research; had a postage stamp issued soon after death

Walter Bradford Cannon

Used x-rays to study the process of swallowing; Very interested in the physiology of emotion; discovered that peristalsis stopped when an animal was frightened and noticed that an animal when aroused would mobilize preparation to flee or defend itself; Became known as a lab hermit; Researched the problem of wound shock; Coined the term fight or flight and the term homeostasis; put forward Dry Mouth Hypothesis; Avid defender of scientists using animals for research; also became a political activist against fascist governments; Never received the Nobel prize, although considered for it

Christiaan Neethling Barnard

First to perform a human open heart transplant on Louis Washkansky with a heart from a road accident victim; the patient lived only 18 days; died from the antirejection drugs which weakened his resistance to pneumonia; One patient survived for over a year but overall survival rate was so low that it was stopped until the surgery could be improved; patients were dying from antirejection drugs; Dorothy Fisher was given a new heart, becoming the first black heart recipient; she survived 12 years; when cyclosporine was discovered, heart surgery began again; helps avoid rejection and infection; Performed a double heart transplant; Ended career because of rheumatoid arthritis in his hands

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