Personality Unit - Old Test Questions

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The theorist who advanced the concept that the unconscious has two layers, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious, was

Carl Jung

Your needs for social status and for respect and recognition from others reflect the ____ needs in Maslow's hierarchy.

esteem

Todd was physically abused up until the age of eight. He is now 40 years old and he has absolutely no memories of the early abuse that he experienced. According to Freud, Todd may be unconsciously dealing with the potential anxiety related to his abuse using the defense mechanism of

repression

Having performed poorly on an exam, Barbara attempts to protect her feelings of self-worth by telling herself that it does not matter because the course really is not that important to her. Barbara is probably

rationalizing

A personality measure that asks you to respond freely to an ambiguous stimulus such as a picture or an inkblot is called a

projective test

When faced with an ever-increasing number of consumer product choices, people often experience the discomfort of:

information overload.

Overestimating the extent to which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called:

the spotlight effect.

Contemporary psychodynamic theorists are most likely to disagree with Freud's assumption that:

sexual drives are central to personality development.

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between:

the actual self and the ideal self.

The theoretical orientation that argues that psychology should study only observable behavior is

behaviorism

The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as:

the Barnum effect.

A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to:

criticize the shortcomings of others.

Freud's concept of the unconscious is MOST like Jung's

personal unconscious

Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic:

personality traits.

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.

describing; explaining

Jose is one of the top baseball players in his league, but last week he struck out on an easy pitch. When this happened he smashed the water cooler in the dugout with his bat. According to Freud, Jose may be unconsciously dealing with his anger at himself for striking out on an easy pitch by using the defense mechanism of

displacement

Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called:

traits.

The Thematic Apperception Test is composed of

ambiguous pictures

A key concept in Freudian theory is

conflict

The collection of beliefs about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior is referred to as one's ____, according to Rogers.

self-concept

Kelly loves to boast about her accomplishments and becomes very upset when anyone criticizes her. Kelly most clearly demonstrates:

defensive self-esteem.

Freud's concept of projection is most similar to what today's researchers call the:

false consensus effect.

Freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as Allport is to the ________ perspective.

trait

The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of:

factor analysis.

Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?

free association

Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of:

an external locus of control.

Freud believed that ________ are the "royal road to the unconscious."

dreams

Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it:

involves the scientific study of optimal human functioning.

Sex and aggression are to Sigmund Freud's theory of personality as the tendency for personal growth is to ____ theory.

Abraham Maslow's

Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and subjective?

humanistic theorists

Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jacinda's part?

"I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing."

Jalen is currently thinking about all the things she has to do before she goes to her first class. She is mentally making lists of all these things so she will remember to do them on her way to school. According to Freud, these thoughts are contained in Jalen's

conscious mind

Which of the following statements is LEAST likely to be made by a humanist?

People are dominated by unconscious conflicts.

Because Mr. Maloney trusts his employees, he treats them very kindly. His kindness leads them to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. This pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by:

reciprocal determinism.

During the early psychosexual stages, the id's psychic energy is focused on:

erogenous zones.

Skye is five years old, and two weeks ago her mother had a baby boy. Since her brother was brought home, Skye has insisted on drinking all her juice from baby bottles, and she has started wetting her bed. According to Freud, Skye may be unconsciously dealing with her feelings toward her new brother using the defense mechanism of

regression

Freud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of:

the superego.

Our ability to better recall information considered in relation to ourselves than information considered in relation to someone else illustrates:

the self-reference phenomenon.

The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's:

past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

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