Chapter 8 Study Guide Cellular Respiration

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This study guide is based off of Biology by Sylvia Mader 10th edition. The chapter is number 8 titled Cellular Respiration. In the learn based tool, prompt with term and copy the "whole" answer and paste it into the answer box.

Which of these processes occurs in the cytosol?
A. the citric acid cycle
B. glycolysis
C. the electron transport system
D. the preparatory reaction

B. glycolysis

Complete oxidative breakdown of glucose results in ______ ATP molecules.
A. 2
B. 4
C. 32
D. 36
E. 39

D. 36

The prepartory reaction breaks
A. glucose into pyruvates.
B. pyruvates into glucose.
C. pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide.
D. pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and water.
E. acetyl CoA into pyruvates and carbon dioxide.

C. pyruvates into acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide.

The first reaction in the citric acid cycle is binding
A. carbon dioxide to a four-carbon (C4) molecule.
B. carbon dioxide to a five-carbon (C5) molecule.
C. acetyl-CoA to a C5 molecule.
D. acetyl-CoA to a C4 molecule.

D. acetyl-CoA to a C4 molecule.

Aerobic cellular respiration yields about ____ of the energy of glucose in ATP molecules.
A. 2%
B. 15%
C. 28%
D. 39%

D. 39%

The first phase of aerobically cellular respiration is:
A. the citric acid cycle.
B. glycolysis.
C. the electron transport system.
D. fermentation.
E. the preparatory reaction.

B. glycolysis.

Which process produces both NADH and FADH2?
A. the citric acid cycle
B. glycolysis
C. the electron transport system
D. fermentation
E. the preparatory reaction

A. the citric acid cycle

Which process produces alcohol or lactate?
A. the citric acid cycle
B. glycolysis
C. the electron transport system
D. fermentation
E. the preparatory reaction

D. fermentation

Which process reduces molecular oxygen to water?
A. the citric acid cycle
B. glycolysis
C. the electron transport system
D. fermentation
E. the preparatory reaction

C. the electron transport system

This product of glycolysis, _______, is degraded in the final stages of aerobic pathways.
A. acetyl - CoA
B. pyruvate
C. water
D. lactic acid
E. oxaloacetate

B. pyruvate

In aerobic cellular respiration, the largest number of ATPs are produced
A. inside the mitochondria matrix and leave through a channel protein.
B. inside the mitochondria matrix and diffuse out through the membrane.
C. embedded in the cristae membranes and diffuse both directions.
D. outside the mitochondria and diffuse in through the membrane.
E. outside the mitochondria and enter through a channel protein.

A. inside the mitochondria matrix and leave through a channel protein.

The electron transport chain and chemiosmosis produces ______ ATP from each NADH and/or _________ ATP from each FADH2 entering the system.
A. 4; 2
B. 3; 2
C. 2: 4
D. 2; 3

B. 3; 2

One turn of the citric acid cycle produces
A. 2 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP.
B. 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP.
C. 1 NADH, 3 FADH2, 2 ATP.
D. 3 NADH, 2 FADH2, 1 ATP.
E. 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 ATP.

B. 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP.

Acetyl-CoA is produced from
A. pyruvate and a coenzyme.
B. citric acid and a coenzyme.
C. ATP and pyruvate.
D. CO2 and pyruvate.
E. citric acid and CO2.

A. pyruvate and a coenzyme.

The carbon dioxide we exhale is produced in
A. glycolysis.
B. the electron transport system.
C. lactate fermentation.
D. the citric acid cycle.

D. the citric acid cycle.

Glycolyis occurs before fermentation.
True False

True

Glycolysis occurs before the preparatory reaction and the citric acid cycle.
True False

True

Glycolysis is an aerobic process.
True False

False

Glycolysis produces 1 pyruvate and 3 NADH coenzymes.
True False

False

Glycolysis is a catabolic process.
True False

True

Degradative reactions
A. cause death.
B. can drive anabolism.
C. tend to be endergonic.
D. include the buildup of products such as complex proteins and nucleic acids.
E. All of the choices are true.

B. can drive anabolism.

For fatty acids to enter the citric acid cycle of aerobic respiration, the fatty acids must be:
A. deaminated.
B. combined with glycerol.
C. combined with ATP.
D. converted to acetyl groups.
E. converted into five-carbon sugars.

D. converted to acetyl groups.

Adult humans cannot synthesize _____ out of the _____ common amino acids.
A. eleven; twenty
B. nine; eleven
C. nine; twenty
D. any; twenty
E. half; all

C. nine; twenty

The amino acids we cannot synthesize are called _____ because we ____.
A. unnecessary; therefore do not need them
B. limiting; must include them in our diet
C. anabolic; must use alternative amino acids
D. essential; must include them in our diet.
E. superfluous; must survive without them.

D. essential; must include them in our diet.

The membrane protein (enzyme) that transforms ADP + P ATP as H+ flows down a gradient from the intermembrane space into the matrix is:
A. the sodium-potassiuim pump
B. ATP synthase
C. cholesterol
D. NADH-Q reductase

B. ATP synthase

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5543187155/
Identify 'a' as the _____

A. inner membrane
B. matrix
C. cristae
D. intermembrane space
E. outer membrane

C. cristae

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5543187155/
Identify 'b' as the _____

A. inner membrane
B. matrix
C. cristae
D. intermembrane space
E. outer membrane

B. matrix

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5543187155/
Identify 'c' as the _____

A. inner membrane
B. matrix
C. cristae
D. intermembrane space
E. outer membrane

E. outer membrane

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5543187155/
Identify 'd' as the _____

A. inner membrane
B. matrix
C. cristae
D. intermembrane space
E. outer membrane

D. intermembrane space

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5543187155/
Identify 'e' as the _____

A. inner membrane
B. matrix
C. cristae
D. intermembrane space
E. outer membrane

A. inner membrane

Why would an organism utilize alcohol fermentation if it is wasteful of the energy in food molecules and poses a threat of death due to high levels of toxic alcohol?
A. The organism can survive short spells of anaerobic conditions and maintain growth and reproduction.
B. If glucose levels are not high, there may be time to disperse the alcohol "waste."
C. Fermentation can provide a rapid burst of ATP since it does not have to go through the full breakdown cycle
D. All of the choices are advantages.
E. None of the choices is an advantage; anaerobes only survive where aerobes cannot.

D. All of the choices are advantages.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5543187249/
Substrates that reoccur in several metabolic pathways form the metabolic pool. Study the figure to place the items in proper order.
A. A is Electron transport chain; B is Pyruvate; C is Citric acid cycle
B. A is Citric acid cycle; B is Electron transport chain; C is Pyruvate
C. A is Pyruvate; B is Citric acid cycle; C is Electron transport chain

C. A is Pyruvate; B is Citric acid cycle; C is Electron transport chain

http://www.flickr.com/photos/60296733@N06/5543187337/
Substrates that reoccur in several metabolic pathways form the metabolic pool. Study the figure to match the substrates with the corresponding pathway.
A. A is glycerol; B is amino acids; C is glucose; D is fatty acids
B. A is glucose; B is fatty acids; C is glycerol; D is amino acids
C. A is amino acids; B is fatty acids; C is glucose; D is glycerol
D. A is amino acids; B is glucose; C is glycerol; D is fatty acids

D. A is amino acids; B is glucose; C is glycerol; D is fatty acids

The most important contribution of the citric acid cycle to cellular respiration is:
A. production of large quantities of ATP.
B. creation of proton gradients
C. reduction of glucose and corresponding oxidation of carbon dioxide
D. oxidation of metabolites molecules and the corresponding reduction of coenzymes
E. release of CO2

D. oxidation of metabolites molecules and the corresponding reduction of coenzymes

Compared with other cell components (organelles, cell membrane or nucleus), the mitochondria would be the only one that would
A. form an electrochemical gradient across a membrane.
B. use significant amounts of oxygen.
C. use a chemiosmotic complex to produce ATP.
D. produce ATP via glycolysis.
E. release protons (H+).

B. use significant amounts of oxygen.

Some bacteria are strict aerobes and others are strict anaerobes. Some bacteria, however, are facultative anaerobes and can live with or without oxygen. If given the choice of using oxygen or not, which should a facultative anaerobe perform?
A. Use oxygen since aerobic metabolism provides more ATP per molecule of carbohydrate broken down than anaerobic metabolism.
B. Not use oxygen since it is a facultative anaerobe, it doesn't tolerate oxygen well.
C. Use oxygen because aerobic metabolism is easier.
D. It doesn't matter; both process will produce the same results.

A. Use oxygen since aerobic metabolism provides more ATP per molecule of carbohydrate broken down than anaerobic metabolism.

The correct sequence for aerobic metabolic breakdown of glucose is
A. glycolysis—preparatory reaction--cirtric acid cycle--electron transport system
B. preparatory reaction--glycolysis---electron transport--citric acid cycle
C. electron transport system--citric acid cycle---prep aratory reaction--glycolysis
D. None of the choices are correct.

A. glycolysis—preparatory reaction--cirtric acid cycle--electron transport system

Some desert beetles can live out their life without ever drinking liquid water. They survive on "metabolic water," which
A. was produced as water in the organisms they eat and is retained, never to pass out of the cell membrane.
B. is absorbed from the air along with respiratory oxygen.
C. is formed as a result of the reduction of oxygen as the final electron acceptor from the electron transport chain.
D. is a breakdown product from glycolysis in the cytoplasm.
E. is an original storehouse of water that is never allowed to pass out the cell membrane.

C. is formed as a result of the reduction of oxygen as the final electron acceptor from the electron transport chain.

The final electron acceptor in glycolysis is oxygen.
True False

False

Fermentation follows glycolysis in some cells when oxygen is not available.
True False

True

Each molecule of NADH produced in the mitochondria provides the energy for two ATP molecules.
True False

False

The breakdown of glucose in cellular respiration is a catabolic reaction.
True False

True

Fermentation is the process that produces bubbles of carbon dioxide that makes bread dough rise.
True False

True

Photosynthesis is the most abundant form of anabolic metabolism in life.
True False

True

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