chpt 8

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_____________ refers only to processes that result in synthesis of cell molecules and structures, and require the input of energy.

Metabolism
Anabolism
Catabolism
None of the above are correct.

Anabolism

Anabolic processes in a cell are required for

Krebs cycle initiation.
glycolysis.
cell division.
fermentation.

cell division.

Enzymes have active sites that bind with the

cofactor.
apoenzyme.
substrate.
holoenzyme.

substrate.

Most enzymes are composed of _______.
protein
carbohydrate
lipid
DNA

protein

Enzymes are usually named for the type of reaction they catalyze, with the ending __________ to indicate that it is an enzyme.

-ose
-ase
-or
-yme

-ase

Enzymes ____________ the activation energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed, acting as organic catalysts.

raise
lower

lower

Enzymes have unique characteristics such as shape, _______, and function.

specificity
sensitivity

specificity

Enzymes are much _________ in size than their substrates.

smaller
larger

larger

Enzymes __________ used up or permanently changed by the reaction they catalyze.

are
are not

are not

Enzymes _______ be recycled.

can
cannot

can

Enzymes function in extremely _______________ concentrations.

high
low

low

Cofactors can be

holoenzymes.
metallic.
apoenzymes.
substrates.

metallic

__________ are transported outside the cell, where they break down large food molecules or harmful chemicals, or can function as virulence factors.

Exoenzymes
Endoenzymes
Viroenzymes
Coenzymes

Exoenzymes

Enzymes which are always present in a cell are termed ____________ enzymes.

regulated
repressed
constitutive
induced

constitutive

Enzyme regulation is an important aspect of metabolic control. Regulation by a product reacting with a regulatory site on the DNA is called

competitive inhibition.
noncompetitive inhibition.
enzyme induction.
enzyme repression.

enzyme repression.

Anabolic reactions often synthesize polymers such as polysaccharides, poly peptides and polynucleotides. The enzymes involved form covalent bonds between smaller substrate molecules during

analysis reactions.
dehydration reactions.
decomposition reactions.
hydrolysis reactions.

dehydration reactions

Identify the form of potential energy below:

thermal energy
radiant energy
mechanical energy
chemical energy

chemical energy

ATP is a three-part molecule consisting of all the following EXCEPT

a nitrogen base (adenine).
a five-carbon sugar (ribose).
a phosphorous molecule.
three phosphate groups.

a phosphorous molecule

Which pathway produces the most energy from a glucose molecule?

fermentation
glycolysis
aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration

aerobic respiration

Glycolysis produces ATP and a vital intermediary, __________, which can be used in respiration, fermentation, or anabolic reactions.

pyruvic acid
glyeraldehyde
glycolic acid
glucose

pyruvic acid

The ability of a cell or system to integrate catabolic and anabolic pathways to improve efficiency is called

gluconeogenesis.
amphibolism.
amination.
glycolysis.

amphibolism.

Aerobic bacteria and mitochondria are able to produce additional energy from the breakdown of glucose by harvesting __________ and using them to bring protons across the membrane via __________, finally, ATP is produced as the protons flow back into the cell through ATP synthase.

electrons; the Electron Transport System
OH- ions; hydrolysis
pyruvate molecules; facilitated diffusion
water molecules; osmosis

electrons; the Electron Transport System

Similar to the system in bacterial membranes, mitochondria are able to produce energy via the electron transport system, located

within the cell cytoplasm.
on the outer membrane of the mitochondrion.
within the intermembrane space.
on the inner membrane.

on the inner membrane.

Photosynthesis consists of two phases. The Calvin Cycle, or light-independent reaction,

initiates gluconeogenesis.
fixes CO2 into glucose.
splits H2O, producing ATP & NADH.
results in photophosphorylation.

fixes CO2 into glucose.

In an oxidation-reduction reaction, the compound that loses the electrons is said to be reduced.

True
False

False

Denaturation is a process by which the weak bonds that collectively maintain the native shape of the apoenzyme are broken.

True
False

True

Glycolysis is also known as the Krebs cycle.

True
False

False

Fermentation is anaerobic respiration in which both the electron donor and final electron acceptors are organic compounds.

True
False

False

Hydrolysis reactions involve addition of water to break bonds.

True
False

True

A conjugated enzyme consists of a protein component called the cofactor and one or more activators called apoenzymes.

True
False

False

Energy is the capacity of a system to perform work. It is consumed in exergonic reactions and is released in endergonic reactions.

True
False

False

Activation energy is the energy needed to initiate a measurable rate of conversion of reactants to products by bond formation or breakage.

True
False

True

Enzymes decrease the activation energy of a reaction.

True
False

True

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