Chapter 7 Bones

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Anatomy Test 2

Cartilage

_____ is the type of connective tissue that forms a cap on the ends of long bones.

All of the above

The knee joint is reinforced by the lateral and medial collateral as well as the cruciate and patellar ligaments.

Calcitonin

The hormone _____ functions to increase the rate of bone deposition.

Vomer bone

Which of the following is NOT a part of the orbit?

Scapula

Which of the following is NOT part of the axial skeleton?

Sella turcica

The pituitary gland is located in the _____.

Long bones

The bones of the limbs are classified as _____.

Vomer and perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

The nasal septum includes which of the following?

increase osmotic pressure within joint

Which of the following is NOT a function of synovial fluid?

Talus

The distal end of the tibia articulates with the _____.

Osteons

Which of the following is NOT found in spongy bone?

Endosteum

The lining of the marrow cavity is called the ____.

Transverse foramina

The parts of the sternum include all of the following EXCEPT _____.

Ulna

The oleocranon process would be found on the _____.

Facets for the articulation of ribs

Thoracic vertebrae can be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of _____.

Intramembranous bones

Bones that develop from membranous connective tissue are called ______.

Hinge joint

The elbow joint is an example of a _____.

Transverse sacral ridges

Proof of the fusion of vertebrae in the sacrum is evidenced by the ______.

Blood calcium levels when parathyroid hormone is increased

Which is greater?

Aromion process

The clavicle articulates with the scapula at the _____.

Xiphoid process

Which of the following is most likely to be damaged during CPR?

Pisiform

The smallest bone of the wrist is _____.

Trochlea of humerus and trochlear notch of ulna

Which two features make up the hinge at the elbow?

Canaliculi

The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are termed _____.

Result in thin, brittle bones

A lack of excercise would _____.

Phalanges

The bones that form the fingers are _____.

Trabeculae

The plates of bone found in spongy bone are called ______.

The transverse processes of the vertebrae

The ribs articulate with the ______.

All of the above

Functions of the skeletal system include support, storage, blood cell production, and protection.

Sutures

Skull bones are joined by tight connections called _____.

Fossa

The term used to describe a shallow depression is _____.

Femur

What bone articulates with the coxa at the acetabulum?

Styloid process

Ligaments that support the hyoid bone are attached to the _____.

126

The appendicular skeleton contains _____ bones.

The legs

The joints that are subjected to the greatest forces would be found in _____.

Talus and calcaneus

If you are standing normally, most of your weight is transmitted to the ground by the _____.

Blood cells

Red bone marrow functions in the formation of _____.

Elevation

Which of the following movements would you associate with chewing food?

Styloid process

The ______ of the radius assists in the stabilization of the wrist joint.

5

The vertebral column contains _____ lumbar vertebrae.

Knee

The largest, most complex synovial joint is the _____.

Long bones have reached their adult length

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,

All of the above

A synovial membrane lubricates the joint, secretes synovial fluid, stores small amounts of adipose tissue, and surround the joint cavity.

Pectoral girdle

Which of the following is NOT a part of the axial division of the skeletal system?

All of the above

The paranasal sinus are located in the frontal, sphenoid, maxillary, and ethmoid bones.

Manubrium

The clavicle articulates with the _____.

Amphiarthrosis

A slightly movable joins is a _____.

Pituitary gland

The sella turcica contains the _____.

Radius

the bones of the forearm include the _____.

Osteopenia

The normal loss of bone that occurs with aging is called _____.

All of the above

As you proceed from the head inferiorly down the vertebral column the transverse processes become shorter, the spinous processes become larger, the body of the vertebrae become heavier, and the vertebrae become larger.

Osteoclasts

Large, multinucleated cells that can dissolve the bony matrix are termed _____.

Endocrine

The body system that is responsible for synthesizing vitamin D3 is the _____.

The ulna

The radius articulates with _____.

Opposition

The special movement of the thumb that allows it to grasp an object and hold onto it is called _____.

Foot

The movements known as dorsiflexion and plantarflexion involve moving the _____.

All of the above

Coxal bones include the illum, ischium, and pubis.

None of the above

The joints between the phalanges are classified as _____.

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells are termed _____.

Calcium

The most abundant mineral in the human body is ____.

Trochanter

A large rough projection of a bone (found only on the femur) is termed a _____.

Osteons

Bones receive oxygen and nutrients from blood vessels passing through _____.

Inversion

The movement classification used when you turn your foot toward the other foot is _____.

Epiphysis

The ends of long bones are known as the _____.

Axial

The spinal column and bones of the middle ear are part of the _____ skeleton.

Epiphyseal

Bone growth will continue as long as the _____ plate exists.

Condyloid

What type of joint is formed when an oval shaped bone fits into an elliptical cavity?

Fossa

_____ is a groove or shallow depression on the surface of a bone.

Ball and socket

The joints of the hips and shoulders are examples of _____ joints.

Osteoblasts

Compact bone is created over the surface of spongy bone by _____.

Osteoporosis

The bone disease _____ is a degenerative disorder, characterized by thinning bones.

Short

Which type of bone is cube-shaped in appearance?

Crest

A narrow ridge of bone is known as the _____.

Calcium

Which mineral is included in the composition of bone?

Osteoblasts

Cells that synthesize the organic components of the bone matrix are called _____.

A cartilage model

Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of _____.

Short

The ankle bones are examples of _____ bones.

Osteolysis

In the process of _____ the bony matrix is dissolved to release the stored minerals.

Chondroitin sulfate

Bone contains all of the following except _____.

Calcitonin

Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone _____.

Irregular

The vertebrae are examples of _____ bones.

Flat

The sternum is an example of a _____ bone.

Osteon

The basic functional unit of compact bone is the Haversian system or _____.

Temporal

The external auditory meatus is found in the _____ bone.

Mandibular fossa

The lower jaw articulates with the temporal bone at the _____.

All of the above

Study of human skeletons can reveal information concerning the person's sex, age and nutritional status, and size and handedness.

Crista galli

Membranes that stabilize the position of the brain are attached to the _____>

8

The wrist, or carpus, contains _____ bones.

Fibula

The _____ provides lateral stability to the ankle.

Pelvis

Differences in the skeletons of males and females can best be seen in the characteristics of the _____.

Transverse formania

Cervical Vertebrae can usually be distinguished from other vertebrae by the presence of _____.

Stylomastoid foramen

The facial nerve passes through the _____.

Fibula

The lateral malleolus is found on the _____.

Ribs

The costal groove would be found on _____.

Diploe

The term _____ refers to the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones.

Lateral malleolus

Which portion of the fibula articulates with the talus?

Provide central support for the body and protect internal organs

The major function of the axial skeleton is to _____.

Sacrum

The pelvic girdle does not include the _____.

Absorb shock

The major function of the intervertebral discs is to _____.

Capitate

The short bone that attaches to the third metacarpal is the ______.

The radius and the ulna

The antebrachium is composed of which of the following two bones?

Atlas

Only the _____ vertebra does not have a body.

Linea aspera

A structure found on the femur is _____.

Sella turcica of the sphenoid

The pituitary gland is housed in the _____.

Xiphoid process

The inferiormost part of the sternum is the _____.

Carpus

The "true wrist" or _____ consists of a group of eight short bones united by ligaments.

Inferior nasal conchae

The ethmoid bone is composed of all of the following except the _____.

Sagittal

The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the _____.

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of _____.

Ostealgia

_____ is pain in the bone.

Hyaline cartilage

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

Compact bone

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

Communication

Which of the following is not the function of the skeletal system?

Fat

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of _____.

Drinking fluoridated water

Factors in preventing osteoporosis include _____.

Is produced by secondary ossification centers

Ossification of the ends of long bones _____.

Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called _____.

Parathyroid hormone

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

Osteoblast

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the _____.

The osteon

The structural unit of compact bone is _____.

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

Blood vessels and nerve fibers

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of _____.

Diaphysis

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the _____.

The sternum (breastbone) is a good source of blood-forming tissue

Select the correct statement concerning the location of blood-forming tissue.

Grow longer

When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones _____.

The bones would be more flexible

How would increasing the proportion of organic molecules to inorganic components in the bony matrix affect the physical characteristics of bone?

Elevated levels of sex hormones

Premature closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by _____.

Osteocytes

The lacunae of bone contain _____.

Inflammation of the joint is secondary to the joint damage

In a degenerative disease of synovial joints _____.

A portion of the protein and mineral content are replaced each year

In normal adult bones, _____.

Has a more restricted range of movement

Compared to the hand, the foot _____.

His foot

Luke stumbles and injurse his hallux. What part of his anatomy is injured?

Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull

Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?

The orbits are formed of both facial and cranial bones

Choose the statement that is most correct about orbits.

Superior ramus

The following is not a structure found on the ischium.

The transverse processes do not have facets that articulate with the tubercles of the ribs.

Thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12 are different from the others in which of the following characteristics?

Sphenoid/maxilla

The superior orbital fissure is formed in the sphenoid bone, whereas the inferior orbital fissue is formed between the _____ and _____.

Fibula

Which of the following bones is not weight bearing?

Occipital

The skull bone that the foramen magnum passes through is the _____.

Bone formation

Osteogenesis is the process of _____.

Thyroid

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?

Reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization

The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40 _____.

Growth hormone

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

Trabeculae

Spongy bones are made up of a framework called _____.

Transverse

A bone fracture perpendicular to the bone's axis is called a _____ fracture.

Electral signals direct the remodeling process

It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of the following hypotheses may explain how mechanical forces communicate with cells responsible for bone remodeling?

Wolff's Law

_____ is concerned with the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it.

By pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows _____.

Within fibrous membranes

Cranial bones develop _____.

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