A & P Chp 10,11 Test Review

93 terms by pgilbert156 

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synergistic

type of muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover to produce a more effective movement

intrinsic

muscles that are within the part being moved. ex muscles that move the hand begin and end in the hand

calcaneal, achilles

common tendon of the gastrocnemous and soleus muscle

perimysium

tough connective tissue binding together fascicles, which are groups of skeletal muscle fibers

size, location, function, shape, direction, number of heads, points of attachment

7 features used in naming muscles

location

brachialis is named after what feature

convergent

type of muscles that have fibers that converge to a narrow attachment

muscles of facial expression

muscles that have at least one of their points of attachment to the deep layers of the skin over the face or neck

origin

fixed attachment of a muscle

rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius

4 parts of the anterior thigh of the quadricep muscle

median nerve

nerve affected in carpal tunnel syndrome

aponeurosis

broad, flat sheet of connective tissue usually merging with the fibrous wrappings of another muscle

endomysium, perimysium, epimysium

connective tissue components

tendon, aponeurosis, fascia, tendon sheath

connective tissue components that attach muscles to bone

number of heads or divisions

feature used in naming tricep muscle

lumbricales, interosseous, opponens pollicis

3 examples of intrinsic hand muscles

epimysium

course sheath covering the muscle as a whole

endomysium

delicate connective membrane that covers specialized skeletal muscle cells called muscle fibers

tendon

strong tough cord that on its other end is continuous with the periosteum of the bone

fascia

fibrous ct surrounding the muscle organ and is outside the epimysium and tendon. general term for the fibrous ct found under the skin and surrounding many deeper organs

tendon sheath

tube shaped structures of fibrous ct. have synovial membrane lining which secretes a lubricating fluid and allows tendon to move easily

parallel

fibers are parallel to long axis of the muscle

pennate

fibers are oblique like the feathers in a plume pen

bipennate

fibers are double feathered

sphincter

fibers are curved, as in the sphincters of the face

antagonist

muscles that when contracting, directly oppose the prime mover, or agonist. they are relaxed while the prime mover is contracting to cause mvmt. important because they provide precision and control during contraction of the prime mover

prime mover (agonist)

muscle or group of muscles that directly performs a specific mvmt. mvmt of the muscle is action or function of that muscle

fixators

function as joint stabilizers

masseter, temporalis, medial, lateral pterygoid

muscles of mastication

lateral pterygoid

muscle of mastication that opens the jaw

extrinsic

muscles originating from the outside part of the skeleton moved. muscles originating in the forearm can pull on their insertions in the wrists, hand, and fingers to move them

opponens pollicis

important muscle of the thumb, it allows the thumb to be drawn across the palm to touch the tip of any finger--opposition of the thumb

gastrocnemius

most superficial muscle of the posterior leg and forms the greater part of the calf; flexes the leg and plantar flexes the foot

soleus

broad flat muscle just deep to the gastrocnemius, which helps to extend the foot

maintain posture, heat production, movement

3 major roles muscles play in the body

musculoskeletal system

a single, continuous structure that comprises a coordinated, dynamic framework for the body

skeletal muscles

organs of the muscular system

smooth

nonstriated involuntary

isotonic

type of contraction in which tone remains the same but length changes

sliding filament theory

contraction process that involves the sliding of thin filaments toward the center of each sarcomere which quickly shortens the entire myofibril and the entire muscle fiber

sarcoplasm

muscle fibers' cytoplasm

cardiac

striated involuntary; found only in the heart

muscular dystrophy

group of genetic diseases characterized by atrophy of skeletal muscle tissue

convulsions

abnormal, uncoordinated tetanic contractions of varying groups of muscles

excite, contract, extend

major function of skeletal muscles

peristalsis

performed by smooth muscle tissue; progressive wavelike mvmt that occurs involuntarily in the walls of hollow structures of the body

muscle fibers

continually remake ATP because they only store a small amount; contain mitochondria and have several nuclei

fibromyositis

tendon and muscle inflammation

myositis

inflammation of a muscle

sprain

occurs in the area of a joint and results in ligament damage

strain

muscle pain; usually involve overstretching or tearing of muscle fibers

sarcomere

basic contractile unit of a muscle fiber

fibrillation

individual fibers of a muscle contract out of sync with each other

motor unit

made up of one motor neuron plus the muscle fibers (cell) that attach to it

atrophy

shrinking of muscle mass

t tubules

allow electrical impulses to travel deep into the cell

excess oxygen

myoglobin are attached to this inside cells

synapse, acetylcholine

what type of connection is a neuromuscular junction & what is released there

relaxation

almost immediately after the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) releases its calcium ions into the sarcoplase, it begins actively pumping them back into the sacs.

intercalated disks

cardiac muscle cells are joined together by these strong specialized junctions

sarcolemma

plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

isometric

type of contraction where muscle length remains the same but tension increases

2 sr sacs, t tubules

what makes up a triad

myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin

4 protein molecules that make up myofilaments

myosin

what thick myofilaments are composed of

actin, tropomyosin, troponin

what thin myofilaments are composed of

triad

term given a t tubule sandwiched between 2 sacs of the sr. important because it allows an electrical impulse traveling along a t tubule to stimulate the membranes of adjacent sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

actin

a globular protein that forms 2 fibrous strands twisted around each other to form most of the thin filament

tropomyosin

protein that covers the active sites on the actin molecules when the myofilaments are at rest

troponin

protein that holds tropomyosin molecules in place

myosin

long shafts bundled together to form a thick filament and have "heads" sticking out from the bundle. the heads are chemically attracted to the actin molecules of the nearby thin filaments

excitability

ability to be stimulated

contractility

ability to contract, or shorten, and produce body movement

extensibility

ability to extend, or stretch, allowing muscles to return to their resting length

myofibrils

bundles of very fine fibers that extend lengthwise along skeletal muscle fibers and almost fill their sarcoplasm; made up of thick & thin myofilaments

sarcoplasmic reticulum

muscle fibers network of tubules and sacs that is comparable to the ER of other cells;

heat production

muscle cells perform catabolism (breakdown) to provide this function for the body

contraction

this constitutes one of the most important parts of the mechanism for maintaining homeostasis of temperature

acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that is released into the synaptic cleft when nerve impulses reach the end of a motor neuron fiber

excitation

the process of synaptic transmission and induction of an impulse

calcium

binds to troponin molecules causing the tropomyosin to shift and expose active sites on the actin molecules

glucose, oxygen

muscle fibers requires this to perform catabolism

myoglobin

reddish-pigmented protein molecules

tetanus

aka tetanic contractions; smooth sustained muscle contractions--or continuous contraction

stretch reflex

a response in which the body tries to maintain a constant muscle length. if an increased load is unsustainable, the body will abandon the contraction and force you to relax and drop the load

isotonic

same tension

isometric

same length

concentric

contractions that result in the shortening of the muscle being contracted

eccentric

type of contraction that results in the lengthening of the muscle being contracted

concentric, eccentric

2 types of isotonic contractions

aerobic exercise

increased blood flow as a result of this allows a more efficient delivery of oxygen and glucose to muscle fibers during exercise; causes an increase in the number of mitochondria in the muscle fibers, allowing for the production of more atp for a rapid energy source

cramps

painful, involuntary muscle spasms; often occur when a muscle is inflammed

rigor mortis

refers to the stiffness of skeletal muscles sometimes seen shortly after death

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