A highly controversial, but influential preacher and civil rights activist. Started out with the Nation of Islam, but formed his own group after learning of Elijah Muhammad's shady activities. Was a more violent and radical civil rights worker than MLK jr. and others.
Nation of Islam
An organization that fought for civil rights for African Americans, but also helped addicts, convicts, and other troubled people. Led by Elijah Muhammad.
Leader of the nation of Islam from 1945 to his death in 1975. He helped many people and was a strong advocate of civil rights, but was involved in some shady activities and lost the favor of Malcolm X, who went on to form his own civil rights group.
A minister within the Nation of Islam preached for civil rights during the civil rights movement, and is now the current leader of the Nation of Islam.
The idea of emphasizing racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests.
An organization headed by Stokely Carmichael that was much more militant and radical than SCLC, CORE, and other civil rights organizations. They were incredibly anti-racist and heavily influenced the "black power" movement.
Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
Founders of the Black Panthers.
De jure versus de facto segregation
De jure segregation is the form of segregation where it is in the law that things are segregated. This is the south from 1865-1960s. De facto segregation is where people stay away from the other race not by law, but because of natural separation due to socio-economic conditions. This type of segregation still exists today.
A series of riots that occurred in 1965 in LA that resulted in the deaths of 34 people. The riots were caused by the record of police brutality by the LAPD.
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders & Otto Kerner
An 11-member commission established by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the ongoing race riots in the United States and to provide recommendations for the future. Called the Kerner Commission after its chair, Otto Kerner.
In 1968, while at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Martin Luther King Jr. was shot by a single .30 bullet fired by James Earl Ray, a fugitive.
In 1968, Two months after MLK's assassination, Robert Kennedy was assassinated in the kitchen of the Ambassador Hotel in LA. The killer, Sirahn Sirahn is still in jail for the crime. This prompted the Secret Service to protect not only the incumbent president, but also presidential candidates.