Chapter 18- Chemical Texture Services

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The chemical texture service that loosens overly curly hair into loose curls or waves is:

Curl re-formation.

All chemical texture procedures involve changing the hair structure using:

Chemical & physical changes.

The exterior hair structure layer that protects the hair from damage is the:

Cuticle.

The layer of the hair that provides strength & elasticity is the:

Cortex.

Hair bonds that connot be broken by heat or water are:

Disulfide bonds.

The natural pH of hair is between:

4.5 & 5.5.

One of the most important parts of a successful texture service is the:

Client consultation.

Permanent waves cannot be performed if the hair is coated with:

Metallic salts.

Disulfide bonds are chemical-based side bonds that are formed when:

Sulfur atom in two adjacent chains are joined together.

The measurement used to determine the hydrogen ions in a solution is:

Potential of hydrogen.

Chemical texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair by lifting the cuticle layer to:

Allow penetration to the cortex layer.

Long, coiled polypeptide chains that are part of the hairs structure are:

Keratin proteins.

The client record card should include a complete evaluation of the length, texture, color, &:

Condition of the hair.

During the hair & scalp analysis procedure, the stylist should look for:

Abrasions or signs of scalp disease.

Hair texture that requires a longer processing or rewetting of solution to ensure complete saturation is:

Coars-textured hair.

The measurement of the number of hairs per square inch on the head is:

Density.

An indication of the strength of the side bonds is:

Elasticity.

The second process of a permanent wave is the:

Influence change process.

In permanent waving, the size of the curl is determined by the:

Size of the rod.

The permanent wave rod that produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand is a:

Straight rod.

A wrapping technique using two endpapers, one placed under the strand & one over is the:

Double-flat wrap.

Permanent wave rods are placed onto subsections of a panel called:

Base sections.

The position of a permanent wave rod in relation to its base section is the:

Base placement.

The technique of wrapping at a 90-degree angle or straigh out from the center is:

Half-off base placement.

The two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod are the spiral method &:

Croquignole method.

A technique used to wrap extra-long hair using two rods in opposite directions is a(n):

Piggyback wrap.

A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of:

Oxygen.

A common, colorless reducing agent used in chemical texture services is:

Thioglycolic acid.

The main reducing agent in alkaline permanents is:

Ammonium thioglycolate.

Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between:

9.0 & 9.6.

The primary low pH reducing agent in acid waves:

Glyceryl monothioglycolate.

An exothermic chemical reaction produces:

Heat.

The basic components of acid waves are permanent wave solution &:

Activator & neutralizer.

An endothermic wave must be activated using a(n):

Outside heat source.

In permanent waving, the processing should be determined by the:

Strength of the solution.

Hair that is too weak to hold a curl or may be completely straight after a perm is:

Over-processed.

The process of stopping the action of a permanent wave is:

Neutralization.

Permanent wave solution should be rinsed from the hair for a minimum of:

5 minutes.

A 90-degree perm wrap that minimizes stress & tension on the hair is:

Half off base.

The process of rearranging extremely curly hair into a straighter or smoother form is:

Chemical hair relaxing.

In extremely curly hair, the thinnest & weakest sections of the hair strand are located at the:

Twists.

Thio chemical relaxers usually have a pH value above:

10.

The active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers is the hydroxide:

Ion.

All hydroxide relaxers can swell the hair up to:

Twice its normal diameter.

Hydroxide relaxers remove one atom of sulfur from a disulfide bond converting it into a:

Lanthionine bond.

Disulfide bonds broken by hydroxide relaxers can never be:

Re-formed.

Hydroxide ions left in the hair after a relaxer can be neutralized using a(n):

Acid-balanced shampoo.

Relaxers containing one component used without any additional mixing are:

Metal hydroxide relaxers.

Sodium hydroxide relaxers (NaOH) are commonly called:

Lye relaxers.

A relaxer with two components mixed immediately prior to use is:

Guanidine hydroxide relaxer.

Lithium hydroxide relaxers & potassium hydroxide relaxers are advertised & sold as:

No-lye relaxers.

Ammonium sulfite & ammonium bisulfite are marketed as:

Mild alternative relaxers.

Cream used to protect the skin & scalp during a hair-relaxing process is:

Base cream.

The strength of relaxers is determined by the concentration of:

Hydroxide.

To avoid overprocessing during a retouch relaxer application, wait until the last few minutes of processing to apply relaxer to the area:

Closest to the scalp.

Conditioners with an acidic pH that condition & normalize hair prior to shampooing are:

Normalizing lotions.

Curl re-formation does not straighten the hair, it simply makes the existing curl:

Larger & looser.

To avoid scalp irritation, prior to the application of a hydroxide relaxer never:

Shampoo the hair.

To avoid excessive stretching of the hair when combing out tangles, use a:

Wide-tooth comb.

Performing texture services involves powerful chemicals that must be handled with:

Caution.

The term used to describe removing excess water before the application of a neutralizer is:

Blotting.

When checking for test curl development, the test curl should reflect:

A firm S formation.

When performing test curls, the rod should be unwound approximately:

1 1/2 turns.

Incorrect placement of the rubber band of perm rods will cause band marks or:

Breakage.

When working with hair that has been chemically relaxed, you should avoid using:

Hot irons.

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