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Cauda equina

This is where the spinal nerve roots are clustered in the spinal cord.

afferent

these type of nerves carry sensations of pain, temperature, and vibrations from the periphery to the brain. Carry sensory impulses.

efferent

these type of nerves carry sensations of pain, temperature, and vibrations from the brain to the periphery. Also, sends messages about the production of secretions. Carry motor impulses.

Frontal lobe

This is where motor impulses originate. In the motor cortex of the.....

constipation

This can be an adverse effect due to the slowing down of peristalsis by opiates.

CNS excitation

What should nurses watch for in patients on opiod analgesics (especially those with renal impairments)?

respiratory depression

which side effects of opiod therapy do those on long term therapy often not experience?

pain recurrence

what can the effect of opiod antagonists be?

Phenytoin

when giving this drug enterally, food can not be inserted in the tube 2 hours before or after as it alters the absorption.

Gingival Hyperplasia

Long term use of phenytoin can cause this side effect.

Equal-analgesic conversion chart

This is used to compare doses of opiods to doses of morphine sulfate.

cerebrum

this is the part of the brain that houses the nerve center that controls sensory and motor activities, houses nerve center that controls intelligence, and is the largest part of the brain.

acetylcholine

this is the neurotransmitter responsible for communication between nerves and muscles.

norepinephrine and epinephrine

these two neurotransmitters released by the nerves in the sympathetic branch of the ANS

dopamine

this neurotransmitter is involved in the coordination of impulses and responses (usually dealing with motor coordination)

GABA

This neurotransmitter helps inhibit nerve activity and is important in prevent over-excitability or stimulation in things such as seizures.

Serotonin

This neurotransmitter is important in arousal and sleep and in preventing depression/promoting motivation.

benzodiazepines

this type of drug is given to help with anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and agitation. Can cause sedation, dry mouth, and confusion. monitor pts for respiratory and cognitive status & safety

phenobarbital

this is a sedative/hypnotic given to help treat seizures.

antihistamines

these can be given to help induce sleep and reduce nausea.

SSRI (prozac)

this type of medication is given to help with depression, anxiety, PTSD, and chronic pain. It can produce side effects such as headache, drowsiness, dizziness, and agitation. It is important to monitor, R,C,S with pts who are taking this med.

Tricyclic Antidepressants

These are used to help relieve depression symptoms, patients with sleep disorders, and treatment of chronic pain. Side effects include sedation, fatigue, and ataxia. Monitor R,C, & S.

MAOIs

these are used to treat depression and in pts who didn't respond to other antidepressants. These are not doctors first choice. Side effects include sedation, fatigue, ataxia, headache.

Tyramine

Foods containing this must be avoided in patients who are taking MAOIs. Examples of such foods include: chocolate, coffee, bananas, avocados, yogurt, peanuts, etc.

Antipsychotics

This type of drug helps to treat though process disorders such as schizophrenia, manic behavior, dementia, drug overdoses. Side effects include hypotension, tachycardia, dry mouth, weight gain. monitor patient BP & pulse and assess for seizures

cogentin/benedryl

these two medications can be given if extrapyramidal sideffects occur with antipyschotics such as twitching, seizure.

antimanic or mood stabilizers

these medications can be used to treat mania and bipolar disorders. Side effects include: lethargy, slurred speech, coma, muscle weakness. encourage pts to drink enough fluids and salt

Monitoring drug levels

This is extremely important to do with antimanic and mood stabilizing drugs.

CNS stimulants

this type of drug is used in the treatment of ADD and narcolepsy. The side effects include nervousness, insomnia, dizziness, headache, anorexia. do frequent weight checks

Anti-Seizure Agents

This medication is used to treat seizure disorders. The side effects include ataxia, solemncence, hypotension, etc.

Dilantin/phenytoin

These two medications are especially well known for causing gingival hyperplasia

Monitoring therapeutic blood level

This is extremely important because anti-seizure agents have a limited therapeutic level

levodopa

this medication is used to treat parkisonism and parkisons disease. Symptoms include increased tremor, ataxia, agitation.

Anticholinergics

These drugs are used to help treat parkinsons disease, to reduce rigidity and tremors, and to block the effects of acetylcholine. Side effects: confusion, and NO SPSS. watch for complications with no SPSS

Muscle Relaxants

These can be used to treat muscle spasticity, muscle strain, and clinical spasticity. Side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, faitgue, hypotension. Often used in people with spinal cord injuries

narcotics

this brand of medications is used to treat severe, acute, or chronic pain. side effects include: shock, dizziness, fear, anxiety, constipation.

naloxone

this is also called narcan. They are used to reverse narcotic effects and can be used in suspected overdoses. however, they will cause the pain to return.

antimigraine agents

these drugs are used to treat acute migraines by causing vasoconstriction. side effects include numbness, tingling, weakness. should provide a dark room and supportive care

General Anesthetics

These drugs are used to treat anesthesia, hypnosis, pain control, amnesia. Side effects include: respiratory depression, restlessness, drowiness/disorientation, tachycardia.

Monitor ABCs

this is very important when giving general anesthetics to ensure to prevent overdose.

Local anesthetics

This is used to cause numbness/loss of sensation in a limited area of the body. Can also decrease bleeding. Side effects include headache, restlessness, hypotension. monitor local site and neurological status

neuromuscular blocking agents

these medications are used to cause skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or when on a ventilator. Side effects include respiratory depression and apnea.

crash cart/ ER medications

this is important when giving neuromuscular blocking agents in order to counteract potential overdoses.

diazepam

this is an example benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety)

fluoxetine

this is an example of an SSRI (depression treatment)

imipramine

this is an example of a trycyclic anti depressant

phenelzine

this is an example of an MAOI (depression)

chloropromazine

this is an example of an antipsychotic drug used to treat dementia/drug overdoses/though process disorders

lithium

this is an example of an antimanic/ mood stabilizer

methylphenidate

this is an example of a CNS stimulant used to treat ADHD

sinemet/mirapex

these are two examples of levodopa drugs used to treat parkinsons disease

biperiden/duphenhydramine

these are two drugs with are anticholinergics used to help reduce drooling/tremors/etc.

ergots/triptans

these are two examples of antimigraine agents

cerebellum

this part of the brain is responsbile for maintaining muscle tone, controlling balance, and coordinating muscle movement.

limbic system

this system in the brain is responsible for emotional and sexual arousal.

reticular activating system

this system in the brain functions as an alerting system for the cerebral cortex.

brain stem

This part of the brain provides pathways for nerve fibers, provides vital autonomic reactions, and serves as the origin for 10/12 cranial nerves.

neurons

these are comprised of one axon and many dendrites, is the primary unit of the nervous system, and does both conductivity and excitability.

axon

these carry information away from the cell bodies

dendrites

these carry impulses toward the cell bodies

opiod naive

this state can occur when a person has been prescribed opiods and the drug is used infrequently, and the drug is prescribed for acute pain relief.

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