group cohesion in sport

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chapter 2 of 3

objectives

Students will understand the nature of cohesion in sport teams, including:
How to measure group cohesion.
The conceptual model of group cohesion.
The important correlates of group cohesion.

Introduction
Group dynamics

Field of study that focuses on gaining knowledge about the nature of groups and their development

the nature of Cohesion

Dynamic process which reflects tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs.

C1 Dynamic not static

it changes sometimes you hate each other sometimes you love each other

C2 Factors that hold groups together are varied and numerous

multidimensional in nature. Factors vary between groups, length of time, change of goals

C3 instrumental in nature

all groups form for a reason. Has a goal

C4Affective reasons

strong emotional ties among a group members. Reason for acceptance

Conseptual model of Group Cohesion

Carron et al (1985) multi dimensional construct that contains different aspects
individual aspects: Beliefs groups members hold about personal benefits (whats in it for me)
Group aspects: Beliefs members hold about the group as a collective (whats in it for the team)

Individual and group aspects divide into:
Task cohesion: Orientations towards achieving groups objectives
Social cohesion: Orientation towards developing and maintaining social relationships within group.

Conceptual model : four cohesion factors in group sports

1. Individual attraction to the group-task.
2. Individual attraction to the group-social.
3. Group integration-task.
4. Group integration-social.

Majority rule

- equal participation and equal power
(hastie and Kameda) found that these groups make more successful decisions

Group think

(Janis ) concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive group that it tends to overshadow realistice appraisals of alternative course of action

Grope dynamics

(Cartwright and Zander )
-focuses on gaining knowledge about the nature of groups and their development on understanding the interrelationships between groups and individuals

Assembly affect

variations in group behavior that are a function of the particular combinations of individuals
(Rosen berg et all(1955) found that individuals contributed differently to a groups outcome depending on the particular other individuals with whom they are grouped

important facts about cohesion

- it is most important in small groups (Lotts and Lotts)members are motivated to stay in a group (Shaw 1976)

GEQ
Group Environment Questionnaire

sport specific cohesion instrument - it is based on an accepted definition and framework of cohesion (Carron Widmyer and Brawley)

Group dynamics ( Carron 2005)

cohesion in sports teams is interdirectionally related to - environmental factors - leadership factors - team factors - and personal factors

Environmental Correlates of Group Cohesion:
• Group Size:

• Inverse relationship between cohesion and group size.
• The smaller the group the greater the level of cohesion (Mullen and Copper 1994)

meta analysis by Mullen and Copper

- study found that smaller groups have more cohesion
- Carron and Spink - increases in groups size decreases task cohesion

Leadership Correlates of Group Cohesion:
• Leader's Behaviour: (LB)

• Assessed through Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS).

Training and Instruction (LB)

: Skill instruction, techniques and tactic

• Social Support (LB)

: Concern for welfare of individual athletes,

• Positive Feedback (LB)

: Reinforcing an athlete by recognizing and rewarding strong performance.

• Leader's Decision Style:

the degree to which a leader allows participation by subordinates in decision making

• Autocratic Style

: Independent decision making and stresses personal authority.

• Democratic Style

: Allows athlete participation in decisions.
(continued)

Leadership Correlates of Group Cohesion:
• Team-Building Activities:

Programs promoting increased sense of team unity and cohesiveness, enabling the team to work together more smoothly.

Leadership Correlates of Group Cohesion:
• Team-Building Activities:

programs that are geared toward promoting an increased sense of team unity and cohesiveness,
allows team to function more smoothly and effectively

• Team Building (TB) model: Four Stages

• First three stages conducted by TB professionals.
• Fourth stage involves coaches implementing the TB formulated strategies
doesn't work well on sports teams

First Stage

-introduction - benefits of cohesion

• Second Stage

- conceptual model introduced provides a frame work of reference
- where cohesion in group is viewed as an output that arise from 1. the environment 2. the structure
and the thru put - group processes

third stage

- (Practical Stage) where the coaches become active agents in developing practical strategies that they will use in their own group setting
(what concepts will work for their group)

• Fourth Stage

- (Intervention Stage coaches take the protocols and introduce them to their team

negative team building
hazing

Use of harassment, abuse or humiliation to initiate new group members
teams who did more hazing type activities were less cohesive

principles underlying the team building program -Team structure

- Role clarity and acceptance
- Leadership
- conformity to standards

principles underlying the team building program- Team Environment

Togetherness - close proximity
distinctiveness - why they stand out adds to cohe

principles underlying the team building program - Team processes

Sacrifices
goals and objectives
co-operations

Personal Correlates of Group Cohesion: P
• Intention to Return: will the individual return. Is dependent on coheasion

○ Relationship between cohesion and in-group adherence may measure intention to participate further on teams, in male and female team sport settings.
○ Social cohesion or task cohesion

individual effort PC

• Adherance can be manifested in behaviors such as apathy and reduced work output
• Perceptions of a team's cohesiveness are associated with an individuals actual or perceived level of effort in a team-sport setting. More cohesive the team is the more effort the individual puts forward

Social Loafing PC

: Reduction in individual effort when individuals work collectively compared to when they work alone.

• Self-Handicapping PC

: Using strategies that protect one's self-esteem by providing excuses for forthcoming events.
• Relationship between cohesion and self handicapping may be complex
○ Task cohesion negatively related to self handicapping

Team Correlates of Group Cohesion:
• Team Success:

• Research findings mixed.
• Some studies show greater levels of cohesion lead to success
• Other studies show no relationship between cohesion and team success

Team Success (Mullen and Copper 1994)

• A small but significant positive relationship exists between cohesion and performance across many groups and tasks (Mullen and Copper 1994) .
• Stronger relationship within sports teams
○ Within sport teams, stronger relationship for females than males

Collective Efficacy:

Groups often have collective expectations for success (Bandura, 1977).
• Teams high in collective efficacy rated task and social cohesion higher than teams lower in collective efficacy

• Psychological Momentum

: Perception of team members that team is progressing toward goals.

Members of highly cohesive teams rated their team as possessing more psychological momentum than members of teams perceived as less cohesive

• Athlete's Starting Status:

• Starters scored higher on measures of task cohesion than did non-starters only if teams were less successful.
• More successful teams showed no difference.

• Group Cohesion as a Mediator
• Mediators

: Mechanisms that account for the effect of one variable on another.
• Cohesion mediates a number of important relationships.
• Specific forms of leadership behaviour may predict who returns the next year.
○ Social cohesion mediates the relationship between training and instructions (leadership behaviour) and intent to return

proposed mediation model

Cohesion - intention to return - and leadership behavior are all related to each other

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