geol exam 2

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which of the following is an example of a clastic sedimentary rock?

shale (Clasticseo rock= shale)

reverse faults form in response to ______ forces.

compressive (reverse faults--> compressive forces)

where does sea floor metamorphism take place?

divergent plate boundaries

which of the following statements best describes the behavior of rocks during deformation?

brittle materials deform by faulting, whereas ductile materials deform by folding

Coal is produced from the diagenesis of

swamp vegetation

a rock formed with 1000 atoms of a radioactive parent element, but contains only 250 radioactive parent atoms today. If the half-life for the radioactive element is one million years, how old is the rock?

2 million years old

An undeformed sedimentary layer is _____ than the layer above and _____ than the layer below.

older, younger

which of the following rocks represents the highest metamorphic grade?

gneiss

a diagram representing a vertical slice through the earths crust is called a?

geologic cross section

which of the following rocks is composed of clay-sized clastic sediment?

shale

which of the following sedimentary rocks is composed of biochemically precipitated silica?

chert

which of the following is not a dip-slip fault?

a right-lateral fault

an oblique-slip fault suggest

shear forces combined with compressive or tensional forces

which of the following lists is written in order of decreasing particle size?

conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone

the dip of a unit represents the

angle at which the bed inclines from the horizontal

what determines whether a rock deforms in a brittle fashion versus a ductile fashion?

temperature, rate of deformation, and rock type

Burial of sediments results in

increasing pressure and increasing temperature

marble is a metamorphic rock that forms from

limestone

what kind of metamorphism would you expect to see in the rocks at a meteorite impact site?

shock

the study of the layers in sedimentary rock is know as

stratigraphy

which of the following is an erosion surface that separates two sets of sedimentary layers with non-parallel bedding planes?

angular unconformity

what type of metamorphism is caused by igneous intrusions?

contact metamorphism

the principle of superposition states that

undisturbed sedimentary layers get progressively younger from bottom to top

the line formed by the intersection of an inclined sedimentary layer and a horizontal plane is called the

strike

the parallel alignment of mica in a metamorphic rock is an example of

foliation

in an anticline

the oldest rocks occur in the center and the limbs dip away from the center

sedimentary processes take place

at or near the earths surface

what type of metamorphism is caused by high temperature and high pressure imposed over a large volume of crust?

regional

which of the following environments is an example of a shoreline environment?

deltaic

what is an unconformity?

a gap in the geologic record

the surface that divides a fold into two symmetrical halves is called

axial plane

the study of ancient life forms preserved in the rock record is referred to as

paleontology

which of the following is not a clastic sedimentary environment

evaporite

a disconformity is

an erosional surface between horizontal layers of sedimentary rocks

fossils are most common in which rock type?

sedimentary

the study of faunal succession allows

rocks to be correlated from different outcrops

the parent rock of quartzite is

sandstone

which of the following processes will cause metamorphism?

All of the above --> an increase in pressure, interaction with hydrothermal fluids, an increase in temperature

the bahamas are an example of a

carbonate platform

which of the following sequences describes the metamorphic changes in a shale with increasing metamorphic grade?

Slate-> schist -> gneiss

What is a thrust fault?

a low-angle reverse fault

which of the following is the best statement of the principle of original horizontality?

sediments are deposited as horizontal layers

the three main types of sediment are

silicilastic, biological, chemical

which of the following metamorphic rocks is always foliated?

schists

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