EMT National Registry

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National Registry Questions

3 effects of intracranial pressure on vital signs

bradycardia, irregular breathing, hypertension

___ ___ is part of a syndrome called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

chronic bronchitis

___ ___ is usually caused by viruses or bacteria and may last several days or weeks.

Acute bronchitis

a group of diseases characterized by the pathological limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible.

COPD

A late sign of shock is:

decreased blood pressure

A PASG is contraindicated if the patient presents with cardiogenic shock or _______.

abnormal lung sounds

a policy or protocol issued by a medical director that authorizes EMTs to perform particular skills in certain situations

standing orders

A sign of breathing difficulty in children is a decrease in ___ ___.

pulse rate

A sudden loss of _______ of blood is considered serious in an average adult.

1000cc

A thrombus which has broken loose, moving with blood flow, is called

an embolism

A weakened section of an arterial wall that begins to dilate is known as a(n)

aneurysm

Activated Charcoal: Contraindications

Poor LOC, vomiting

Activated Charcoal: Dosage

1 g/kg of body weight, adults usually 25-50g, children 12.5-25g

Activated Charcoal: Side Effects

Constipation, nausea, vomiting, bowel obstruction

After delivering your first shock with an AED, the patient is still pulseless, you should next

perform two minutes or 5 cycles of CPR

Albuterol: Action

Bronchodilator

Albuterol: Contraindications

Allergy

Albuterol: Dose

2.5 mg nebulized with 2.5 mL saline (for a total of 3mL)

Albuterol: Indications

Acute bronchospasm due to asthma or COPD

Albuterol: Side effects

Headache, tachycardia, hypertension

An example of a shockable rhythm

pulseless ventricular tachycardia

An infant or child patient who exhibits wheezing, increased breathing effort on exhalation, or rapid breathing without stridor probably has:

A lower-airway disease

an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs

bronchitis

ASA: Action

Impedes blood clotting

ASA: Contraindications

allergy, bleeding disorder, already taken 324mg

ASA: Dosage

324mg (81mg x 4)

Atrovent: Action

Bronchodilator

Atrovent: Contraindications

Allergy to drug, soybeans, peanuts, glaucoma

Atrovent: Dose

0.5 mg nebulized w/ 2.5 mL saline (3mL total)

Atrovent: Side Effects

Dry mouth, headache, gastrointestinal distress

caused by loss of elasticity of the lung tissue, from destruction of structures supporting the alveoli, and destruction of capillaries feeding the alveoli.

emphysema

Chaotic electrical activity originating from many sites in the heart is called:

Ventricular fibrillation

DCAP-BTLS =

deformities, contusions, abrasions, punctures, burns, tenderness, lacerations, swelling

Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and many undetermined respiratory illnesses are classified as

COPD

Epinephrine: Action

vasoconstriction, bronchodilation

Epinephrine: Contraindications

Glaucoma, shock other than anaphylactic, diabetes, cardiac problems, hypertension, pregnancy, meds include a beta blocker or MAOI

Epinephrine: Dosage

Epi-Pen = 0.3mg, Epi-Pen Jr = 0.15mg (for <60 lbs)

Epinephrine: Indications

Anaphylaxis

Epinephrine: Side Effects

Headache, palpitations, hypertension, tachycardia

Flow rates for nasal cannula

1-6 L/min

Flow rates for NRB

12-15 L/min

Full dilation of the cervix occurs in the _______ stage of labor.

first

Glucagon: Action

increases blood glucose by stimulating liver to release stored glycogen

Glucagon: Contraindications

allergy, hx of pheochromocytoma (tumor which secretes epinephrine)

Glucagon: Dosage

1.0 mg for >44lbs, 0.5 mg for <44lbs, repeat in 20 min if no response

Glucagon: Side Effects

hypotension, nausea, vomiting, respiratory distress

Half of all cardiac arrest patients will initially have a _______ rhythm.

Ventricular fibrillation

Hypoglycemia

Blood sugar less than 60

If a cardiac arrest occurs within two hours of the onset of symptoms, it is called

sudden death

If a patient is eight months pregnant, how much blood can she potentially lose before exhibiting signs of shock?

30-35%

If the patient is not defibrillated within _______ minutes of a cardiac arrest, there is almost no chance for survival.

8

In an adult, a systolic BP of __ or less is hypotensive

90mmHg

In patients > 1 y/o, the 1st pulse you check

radial

In the condition called ____, there is not electrical stimulus to cause the heart muscle to contract.

asystole

list of steps to be taken in different situations

protocols

Lung sounds that resemble low-pitched snoring or rattling are called

rhonchi

Normal breathing rate for adults

12-20

Normal breathing rate for children

15-30

Normal breathing rate for infants

25-50

Normal diastolic BP in adults

60 to 90

Normal pulse rate for an adult

60-100 bpm

Normal systolic BP in adults

90 to 150

Not all poisons are toxins. Toxins are poisons that are

produced by living organisms

NTG: Action

vasodilator, decreases blood return to heart

NTG: Contraindications

systolic pressure <100mm/Hg, use of ED med within last 24 hrs, head injury

NTG: Dosage

0.4mg SL, repeat every 3-5 min for 15 min

NTG: Indications

chest pain of cardiac origin, angina, acute CHF

NTG: Side Effects

headache, hypotension, tachycardia

occurs when an object migrates from one part of the body and causes a blockage of a blood vessel in another part of the body

embolism

Order of preference for artifical breathing techniques, best to worst

Mouth to mask, 2-rescuer BVM, Flow-restricted O2 powered device, 1-rescuer BVM

orders from the on-duty MD given directly to an EMT-B

on-line medical direction

Oximeter reading in a normal, healthy person

96-100

Pertinant characteristics of breathing

rate, rhythm, quality, depth

Prior to delivery, if the mother is in the supine position, she may develop dizziness and a drop in blood pressure. This is called:

supine hypotensive syndrome

Signs of internal bleeding include:

Bruising, swelling, and pain over vital organs; painful, swollen, or deformed extremities

Small round purplish spots, called petechiae, are caused by:

capillary bleeding

Splinting a closed, angulated fracture in the position in which it was found may cause a(n) _______ during transport.

open fracture

standing orders issued by the medical director that allow EMTs to do things without speaking to the med director

off-line medical direction

This increases in adults with breathing difficulty.

Pulse rate

the amount of air breathed in during each respiration multiplied by breaths/minute

minute volume

The butt or feet of a baby presents first

Breech presentation

The condition of excessive fluid buildup in the lungs because of the inadequate pumping of the heart is called

CHF

the formation of a clot or thrombus inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system

thrombosis

The normal headfirst delivery of a baby is called a:

Cephalic presentation

The primary electrical disturbance that results in cardiac arrest is...

Ventricular fibrillation

The required amount of suctioning that a suction unit must provide.

30 L/min, 300 mmHg

The spinal column is made up of _______ separate irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae

33

Type _ diabetes usually develops in adults and often is controlled by diet and oral medication.

2

Type _ diabetes usually develops in childhood, and requires at least daily doses of supplemental insulin.

1

Usually only _______ patients can develop hemorrhagic shock due to a closed head injury.

infant

Ventilation rate for adults

12/min

Ventilation rate for children

20/min

Ventilation rate for infants

20/min

What is a very late sign of an ectopic pregnancy?

Low BP

When gases enter the bloodstream as the result of a damaged lung, it is called a(n)

arterial gas embolism

When pressure increases inside the skull because of swelling of brain tissue, blood flow is decreased. This results in...

the brain being starved for oxygen and carbon dioxide increasing, causing more swelling.

The major artery of the arm

brachial artery

APGAR

Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiratory effort

layers of skin, outside to inside

epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous

Which body parts are considered to be 9% of total body surface area

head, chest, abdomen, both arms, each leg

What part of the body can be used to estimate 1% surface area

palm

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