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The sites where ribosomes assemble prior to their migration into the cytoplasm is the:

nucleolus

A solution that contains fewer solutes than the cell is:

hypotonic

The lungs and the heart are in the __________ body cavity

thoracic

In anatomical position:

the body is erect with feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward

A section that divides the body on the longitudinal plane into equal right and left part is called:

median (midsagittal)

Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as:

endocrine

The phase of cell division during which the chromatids are pulled apart and move to the opposite ends of the cell is:

anaphase

The atomic number of an atom is the number of:

protons in the atomic nucleus

The study of the function of the body and body parts is called:

physiology

Shell 1 of an atom can hold a maximum of __________ electron(s):

2

The ovary is part of which of the following two systems:

reproductive and endocrine systems

Which of the following statements is correct regarding the electrical charge of subatomic
particles:

protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons are neutral

Atomic mass is equivalent to the number of __________ in an atom.

protons and neutrons

The tiny finger-like projections that increase the surface are of the cell for quicker absorption are
called:

microvilli

The correct order of phases of the cell cycle is:

interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

The system that takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide to the exterior is the:

respiratory system

Ninety-six percent of the human body is composed of the elements:

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

DNA replication takes place during:

interphase

The dorsal body cavity houses the:

spinal cord and brain

Positive feedback systems:

operate in such a way that the initial stimulus is enhanced and increases

The type of muscle found in the walls of hollow organs, such as the stomach, and in the walls of blood vessels is:

smooth muscle

The reaction A + B → AB is an example of a(n):

synthesis reaction

Which of the following is NOT connective tissue:

blood

Glucose and starch are examples of:

carbohydrates

The organic compounds that function in building tissues and acting as enzymes are the:

proteins

An atom with an atomic number of 14 will have __________ electrons in its valence shell.

4

Two types of passive transport are:

diffusion and filtration

Ribosomes are found:

in the cytoplasm and on the rough endoplasmic reticulum

Which of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex, in the levels of structural organization of the human body:

chemical level, cellular level, tissue level, organ level, organ system level, organismal level

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order:
1. stratum basale
2. stratum corneum
3. stratum granulosum
4. stratum lucidum
5. stratum spinosum

2, 3, 5, 1

Stratified epithelium consists of one layer of epithelial cells.

False

Carbon is found in all inorganic compounds.

False

The endocrine system is the fast-acting body control system.

True

There is no physical structure that separates the abdominal cavity from the pelvic cavity.

True

The process of facilitated diffusion requires energy.

False

Proximal means farther from the origin of a body part.

False

When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution it will swell and may rupture.

False

The epidermis is made up of stratified squamous epithelium.

False

Desmosomes are junctions that allow cell communication.

False

Smooth muscle cells are uninucleated spindle-shaped cells that are voluntary.

False

The lower the pH, the greater the number of hydrogen ions.

True

A round or oval opening through a bone is a:

foramen

The hyoid bone is unique because:

it is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone

The atlas is the:

first cervical vertebra

During skeletal muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:

actin filaments

Which of the following is NOT a function of the muscular system:

hematopoiesis

Which one of the following muscle actions would NOT be classified as an ISOTONIC contraction:

pushing against a stationary wall

The tailbone is the:

coccyx

Which of these bones is NOT a long bone found in the leg:
A) metatarsals
B) tibia
C) femur
D) fibula
E) patella

patella

The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that:

bone length is no longer increasing

Four of the five answers listed below are parts of the same anatomical area. Select the exception.
A) scapula B) fibula C) clavicle D) radius E) humerus

fibula

All of the following facial bones are paired except one. Which of the following is the unpaired facial bone:
A) vomer
B) maxillae
C) lacrimal
D) palatine
E) zygomatic

vomer

Which is the correct order of ribs, from superior to inferior:

true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs

The mechanical force of contraction is generated by:

a sliding of thin filaments past thick ones

The greater trochanter is located on the:

femur

The axial skeleton contains:
1. skull
2. arms and legs
3. ribs and sternum
4. vertebrae
5. pelvic girdles

1, 3, 4

Which of these bones is NOT associated with the foot:
A) calcaneus
B) metatarsals
C) metacarpals
D) tarsals
E) talus

metacarpals

There are four stages in the healing of a bone fracture. Which of the following best illustrates the sequence of these stages:
1. bony callus formation 3. fibrocartilage callus formation
2. bone remodeling 4. hematoma formation

4, 3, 1, 2

A compound fracture can be described as when:

the broken bone is exposed to the outside

Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are __________, whereas articulations permitting no movement are called __________.

amphiarthroses; synarthroses

Which of the following groups of bones in the human body, categorized according to shape, is
correct:

skull bones - flat bones

The sella turcica is part of the __________ bone.

sphenoid

The middle nasal conchae are part of the:

ethmoid bone

Fingers and toes are referred to as:

phalanges

Which one of the following is composed of myosin protein:

thick filaments

There are __________ vertebrae in the neck region.

seven cervical

The sternum is the result of fusion of three bones called the:

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

Which of these events must occur first to trigger the skeletal muscle to generate an action potential and contract:

acetylcholine (ACh) causes temporary permeability to sodium

Which of the following is correct of the female pelvis when comparing it with the male pelvis:
A) the angle of the female pubic arch is smaller
B) the female pelvis as a whole is deeper, and the bones are heavier and thicker
C) the distance between the female ischial tuberosities is less
D) the female iliac bones are less flared
E) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater

the distance between the female ischial spines is greater

A structure found on the femur is the:

intercondylar fossa

Transverse foramina are found in the:

cervical vertebra

The zygomatic bones form the cheekbones.

True

In anatomical position, the lateral lower leg bone is the fibula.

True

The spinal cord passes through the body of each vertebra.

False

You have more bones as an adult than you do at birth

False

Ribs numbered 11 and 12 are true ribs because they have no anterior attachments.

False

Most of the stress on the vertebral column occurs on the sturdiest vertebrae in the sacral region.

False

Atlas

irregular bone

Femur

long bone

Ulna

long bone

Carpals

short bones

Patella

short and sesamoid bone

An elaborate and specialized network of membranes in skeletal muscle cells that function in calcium storage is the:

sarcoplasmic reticulum

The condition of skeletal muscle fatigue can be best explained by:

insufficient intracellular quantities of ATP due to excessive consumption

A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n):

synergist only

Acetylcholine is:

a neurotransmitter that stimulates skeletal muscle

The Schwann cell forms a myelin sheath around the:

axon

The peripheral nervous system consists of:

the spinal and cranial nerves

The term central nervous system refers to the:

brain and spinal cord

During skeletal muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:

actin filaments

The substance that is released at axonal endings to propagate a nervous impulse is called:

a neurotransmitter

The neuron processes that normally receive incoming stimuli are called:

dendrites

While doing "jumping jacks" during an exercise class, your arms and legs move laterally away from the midline of your body. This motion is called:

abduction

Preparing the body for the "fight-or-flight" response during threatening situations is the role of the:

sympathetic nervous system

The blood-brain barrier is effective against the passage of:

metabolic waste such as urea

The gap between two communicating neurons is termed:

synaptic cleft

The insertion of the gluteus maximus is the:

femur

Which one of the following functions do calcium ions perform during skeletal muscle contraction:

expose myosin binding sites on the actin

Sandra is playing the piano for her recital. Which muscle is not involved in the movement of her hands and/or fingers:

extensor digitorum longus

Impulse conduction is fastest in neurons that are:

myelinated

The three major parts of the brain stem are the:

midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

Afferent nerves are called __________, and motor nerves are called __________.

sensory nerves; efferent nerves

A sarcomere is:

the contractile unit between two Z discs

Immediately after an action potential is propagated, which one of the following ions rapidly diffuses out of the cell into the tissue fluid:

potassium

Which of the following does not describe cardiac muscle tissue:

attached to bones

What type of membrane wraps a fascicle:

perimysium

Which one of the following muscles is involved in abduction of the arm at the shoulder joint:
A) triceps brachii
B) pectoralis major
C) deltoid
D) biceps brachii
E) latissimus dorsi

triceps brachii

An action potential is caused by an influx of these ions into the cell:

sodium

Muscle tissue that has involuntary regulation of contraction is:

cardiac and smooth muscles

White matters refer to myelinated fibers in the:

CNS

Which one of the following is NOT a criteria generally used in naming muscles:
A) relative size of the muscle
B) method of attachment of the muscle to bone
C) number of origins of the muscle
D) action of the muscle
E) shape of the muscle

method of attachment of the muscle to bone

The cerebrospinal fluid:

is continually formed mostly by the choroid plexuses

Which one of the following represents the correct sequence from outermost to innermost layers of the meninges:

dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

Which of the following is the correct sequence in a typical reflex arc:

receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of nerves that exit the spinal cord, going from
superior to inferior:

cervical spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates through all of the following except:

corpus callosum

Which one of the following is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential:
1. the membrane becomes depolarized
2. sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward
3. the membrane becomes repolarized
4. potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward while sodium is actively

1, 2, 4, 3

The axon terminals of a nerve cell and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle cell join at the:

neuromuscular junction

Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion are synergistic actions.

false

An afferent sensory neuron carries stimuli from the central nervous system to the effector.

false

There are 31 pairs of cranial nerves and 12 pairs of spinal nerves.

true

Skeletal muscles need nerve stimulation for contraction to occur.

true

Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and also in the subarachnoid space outside the brain.

true

A contraction in which a skeletal muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called
isometric.

true

A muscle twitch results when the muscle is stimulated so rapidly that no evidence of relaxation
is seen.

true

The insertion of the biceps brachii muscle is on the radius.

true

The nodes of Ranvier are found at regular intervals only on myelinated, peripheral nerve fibers.

true

The effect of the neurotransmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to temporarily modify its permeability of ions such as Na+ and K+.

true

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