French Revolution

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Jacobins

Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre

faction

Dissenting groups of people that competed to gain power in Paris which was the revolutionary center

Jacques Necker

financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, and tax the nobles; nobles encouraged Louis to fire him.

Tennis Court Oath

pledge made by members of France's National Assembly in which they vowed to continue meeting until a new constitution was drawn up

Bastille

Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution; is often marked as the beginning of the French Revolution.

Robespierre

A French political leader during the French Revolution; A Jacobin; He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. Arrested on July 27, 1794; executed the next day.

ancien regime

The old order before the Revolution in France

deficit spending

spending more than is being taken in

emigres

French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power. Eventually, they returned to France during the rule of the Directory.

leeve en masse

conscription; the draft

coup d'e tat

quick seizure of power; Napoleon joined leaders in this against the directory

Girondists

a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain

Reign of Terror

a period during the french revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands by guillotine; July 1793-July 1794; Jacobins set out to crush all opposition within France

guillotine

a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.

nationalism

strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country; spread throughout France

Marselles

port city from which troops marched singing a song urging the "children of the fatherland" to march against the "bloody banner of tyranny"
-La Marseillaise

Phases of the French Revolution

1. National Assembly
2. Reign of Terror
3. Directory
4. Age of Napoleon

Constitution of 1791

Constitution created by the French Revolution that had a limited monarchy

National Convention

A more radical group; established and begins meetings in Sept. 1792; replaced the National Assembly.

Committee of Public Safety

12 people committee that was created to restore order in France; did this by means of execution; issued a draft when France is at war with most of Europe

plebiscite

popular vote; French supported Napoleon whenever he held one on his rise to power

Napoleonic Code

one of Napoleon's most lasting reforms; new code of laws that embodied Enlightenment principles

Continental System

closed European ports to British goods; Napoleon's version of economic warfare

guerrilla warfare

hit and run raids; Spanish patriots used this against the French

Scorched Earth Policy

burning crops and villages; used by the Russians as they retreated eastward; left the French hungry and cold as the winter came

legitimacy

restoring hereditary monarchs that the Revolution or Napoleon had unseated
Ex: Louis 18th in France, Spain, Portugal, and Italian states

Consulate of 1799

three Consuls become the governing body of France; Napoleon: one of the three, First Consul of France, Consul for Life

Directory

The new government set up by the revolutionary leaders in France; five men executive body

Leipzig

A combined force of Napoleon's former allies defeat him; then steps down from the throne and is exiled to Elba

Waterloo

After 100 days of rule Napoleon is once again defeated at this Belgian Village; exiled to St. Helena

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