Dissenting groups of people that competed to gain power in Paris which was the revolutionary center
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, and tax the nobles; nobles encouraged Louis to fire him.
Tennis Court Oath
pledge made by members of France's National Assembly in which they vowed to continue meeting until a new constitution was drawn up
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution; is often marked as the beginning of the French Revolution.
A French political leader during the French Revolution; A Jacobin; He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. Arrested on July 27, 1794; executed the next day.
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power. Eventually, they returned to France during the rule of the Directory.
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
Reign of Terror
a period during the french revolution in which the Robespierre-led government executed thousands by guillotine; July 1793-July 1794; Jacobins set out to crush all opposition within France
a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution.
port city from which troops marched singing a song urging the "children of the fatherland" to march against the "bloody banner of tyranny"
Phases of the French Revolution
1. National Assembly
2. Reign of Terror
4. Age of Napoleon
A more radical group; established and begins meetings in Sept. 1792; replaced the National Assembly.
Committee of Public Safety
12 people committee that was created to restore order in France; did this by means of execution; issued a draft when France is at war with most of Europe
one of Napoleon's most lasting reforms; new code of laws that embodied Enlightenment principles
Scorched Earth Policy
burning crops and villages; used by the Russians as they retreated eastward; left the French hungry and cold as the winter came
restoring hereditary monarchs that the Revolution or Napoleon had unseated
Ex: Louis 18th in France, Spain, Portugal, and Italian states
Consulate of 1799
three Consuls become the governing body of France; Napoleon: one of the three, First Consul of France, Consul for Life
A combined force of Napoleon's former allies defeat him; then steps down from the throne and is exiled to Elba