When can two species in the same habitat coexist?
When they differ in their use of resources, share the same resource in different ways, and use the same resource at different times.
What is not a type of symbiosis?
What is the brown headed cowbird an example of?
Is lice an endoparasite or an ectoparasite?
It is an ectoparasite; it lives on the surface of its hosts' body and not inside its hosts' body.
Is mistletoe an example of a hemiparasite, or a holoparasite?
Hemiparasite; it is a photosynthetic parasite and not a non-photosynthetic plant parasite.
Do both species benefit in commensalism?
No they don't; one species benefits and the other is not affected.
Prokaryotic cells are found in what kind of organism
What type of molecule is associated with energy transferring in living organisms
What is a community and its physical and chemical environment constitute is called
What is the molecule of inheritance is called
What action is not a requirement of all living thing
The one-way flow of energy through the biosphere starts with energy input from what source
What is the correct scientific way to refer to humans
Do decomposers include certain bacteria and fungi
Does sexual reproduction result in offspring that are genetically "identical" to the parent
The atom of element Phosphorus has 16 neutrons and 15 electrons. What is the atomic number for Phosphorus atom
The element Helium(He) has atomic number of 2. Is this element considered reactive or inert
When atoms gain or lose electrons, what kinds of bonds do they form
What is the normal range of blood pH
When two atoms of oxygen are bond together by a double covalent bond, how many electrons do they share
Are Neutrons positively or negatively charged
Neither, they are neutral.
What substance is a great solvent of polar molecules
In a polar covalent bond, are electrons are equally shared
What is the loss of a protein's normal 3-D shape because of high temperatures or changes in pH is called
When small molecules come together to make a large molecuel, what is it called
How many carbon monosaccharide are in Ribose
What are the building blocks of nucleic acid called
What are the building blocks of proteins called
What are the building blocks of most lipids and glyceral called
What are the building blocks of carbohydrates called
If a solution outside of a cell contains a greater concentration of dissolved solute than the contents of the cell, is the solution hypertonic or hypotonic
In active transport, are solutes transported up or down their concentration gradient
?Up their concentration gradient- hypo to hyper.
Phospholipids contain how many hydrophobic tails and how many hydrophillic heads
Two hydrophobic tails and one hydrophillic head.
What do plant cells have that animal cells do not have
Plastids and a central vacuole
Where does the synthesis of protein take place
In the Rough ER
Where does photosynthesis take place
In the chloroplasts
Where does the synthesis of lipids take place
In the Smooth ER
What is the function of Golgi bodies
To modify, sort, package, and ship proteins and lipids
What is the purpose of the Flagella
To provide movement for the cells
What is the purpose of lysosome vescicles
To aid in cell digestion
Where is ATP produced
In the mitochondrion
What function do enzymes serve in energy conversion
They speed up metabolic reactions and lower the activation energy
What are the final products of glycolysis
ATP and pyruvate molecules
During which formation pathway of ATP is Oxygen formed
The non-cyclic pathway of ATP formation
What is the cell's ability to acquire energy and use it to store, build, or break apart substances called
In the non-cyclic pathway of the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis, how many photosystems are involved
Is glucose is formed in the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis
No, they are formed in the light-independent stage
What is the starting molecule in glycolysis called
Where does the Krebs cycle of aerobic respiration takes place
In the mitochondrion
Is carbon dioxide released during Krebs(citric acid) cycle
Where does the light-independent stage of photosynthesis takes place
In the Stroma
Is energy released In exergonic reactions
According to the second law of thermodynamics, is the entropy in the universe is increasing or decreasing
What would be the complimentary strand of DNA to the DNA strand of A-T-C-G-T-T-G-A-C-A-T-T
How does one species' DNA differs from others
It has a different nucleotide sequence
What does DNA replication results in, and what kind of nucleotides do they each contain
Two molecules, each with one old strand and one newly assembled strand of nucleotides
What is the function of DNA ligase
To attach small gaps
What is the function of DNA polymerase
To obtain nucleotides and correctly pair them
What is the function of DNA binding proteins
To stabilize the single-stranded DNA
What significant action did Rosalind Franklin do
She provided excellent x-ray diffraction images of DNA
What significant action did Watson & Crick do
They discovered the double helix structure of DNA
What is helicase
The unwinding enzyme
What would be the mRNA transcribed from this DNA sequence of T-A-C-A-T-A-A-G-G-A-A-T-T-C-T-A-C-T
How many amino acids does this mRNA sequence code- mRNA=A-U-G-U-A-U-U-C-C-U-U-A-A-G-A-U-G-A
Five, because every three bases make a codon and the last codon is the stop base, so it doesnt count.
Is the RNA molecule single or double stranded
mRNA is produced by what process
What is the five-carbon sugar found in RNA called
When does the loading of mRNA onto an intact ribosome occur
What type of polymerase is the enzyme used during transcription called
What is a sequence of three adjacent bases on an mRNA called
What is the first process of tRNA carrying methionine binds of ribosome and mRNA called
What is the process of tRNA molecules carrying amino acids to add to the growing polypeptide chain is called
What is it called when a stop codon is reached
What are the levels of organization for multicelled organisms
SAMOCTOOO ?subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms
What are the levels of environmental organization
PCEB ?Population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
What is the order of life diversity from most inclusive to least inclusive
DKPCOFGS ?domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genera, specie
When viewing Elodea at 400x what is the movement of the chloroplasts called
What is the function of antibodies
?they are proteins that protect the body from microbes
What are mutations
?changes in the structure of DNA. The basis of different versions of traits
What type of charges are involved with protons, electrons, and neutrons
What is inert
what are differences and similarities between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
?Prokaryotic- simpler DNA, single celled
WHat determines an atoms physical and chemical properties
?the number of protons and the arrangement of its electrons
what are atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons called
How many electrons does each orbital contain
How many orbitals are in each shell
?Depends on the molecule, but there is one orbital in the first shell, four in the second shell, and 4-9 in the third shell. They can have a maximum of 18 electrons
What is a negatively or positively charged atom called
what is an ionic bond
?strong mutual attraction of two opposite charged ions
What is a covalent bond
?a bond that holds together two atoms that SHARE one or more pairs of electrons
What is a nonpolar covalent bond
?when atoms share electrons equally
What is a polar covalent bond
?when atoms share electrons unequally, and there is a slight difference in charge. Like water.
What is a hydrogen bond
?when an atom or molecule interacts weakly with a hydrogen atom already taking part in a polar covalent bond.
Why is water a great solvent
?because ions and polar molecules dissolve in it.
What is cohesion
?the capacity to resist rupturing. It helps impart surface tension and pull water through plants.
What is pH
?the measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The greater the H+, the lower the scale
random alignment of the homologous chromosomes happens during which phase
How many nuclear divisions are in mitosis and how many are in meiosis
One in mitosis and two in meiosis.
Does Mitosis and Cytokinesis give rise to genetically identical or nonidentical cells
2 Genetical Identical cells.
How many viable eggs can a human oocyte give rise to
During what phase are sister-chromatids lined up at the equator of the spindle
During the metaphase stage of mitosis.
During which phase are chronmosomes duplicated in
the S phase of interphase.
What takes place during prophase 1 stage of meiosis, happens between the nonsister chromatids, and produces variety in the genetic makeup of the gametes
What kind of alleles does a homozygote pair have
What kind of alleles does a heterozygote have
What does co-dominance look like
two colors side by side- not mixed.
Heterozygote pairs are what kind of alleles
If a woman's genotype is at the ABO lucus IAi, what is her bloodtype
Pleitrophy refers to traits which are resulted from what
In a paternity test, a woman with AB type blood accuses a man of O type blood of being the father. Could he be the father
What is the F2 phenotype ratio of Mendel's "Monohybrid" cross
What theory did Gregor Mendel discover
the theory of independent assortment.
What are the three barriers to pathogens at body surfaces?
intact skin and mucous membranes, tears and saliva, resident bacteria
What are molecules that macrophages recognize as self and will not elicit an immune response?
What are Macrophages are derived from?
What type of Immunoglobulins are involved in histamine release?
What are Memory cells and how do they function?
B cells; retaining the ability to make an antibody used to fight a previous infection
What is a non-specific immune response?
What is needed for antibody mediated immune response?
Effector helper T-cells
What is the most abundant leukocytes(WBC) in blood?
Where do T-cell lymphocytes originate and mature?
In what line of defense contains the activated complement system?
2nd line of defense
What is Candida albican?
What are reverse transcriptase inhibitors?
inhibit transcription of HIV RNA into DNA
What is Grave's disease?
what are two ways of getting allergies?
pollen, bee venom provoke
What is Hashimoto's thyroiditis?
what are Integrase inhibitors?
inhibit the incorporation of HIV DNA into T-cell DNA
What is cytomegalovirus?
What is T-20?
inhibit binding of gp-120 to CD-4 receptors
What contains two strands of RNA and has reverse transcriptase?
Two ways HIV is transmitted
exchange of blood and exchange of vaginal secretions
Which replication pathway do bacteriophage infect and quickly lyse their host
What are bacterial cell walls mainly composed of
What is bacteria reproduced by
What 3 things is mitosis used for
growth, repair, and asexual production
What type of somatic cells does meiosis occur in
gametes (germ cells)
what are sister chromatids held together by
a centromere, where duplicated chromosomes attach to the microtubules of the spindle part, during nuclear division.
Are somatic cells haploid or diploid
diploid- they have 2 of each chromosome type
Are gametes haploid or diploid
Haploid- they only have one chromosome of each type.
Which phase do cells spend about 90% of their life in
what three things occur during interphase
cells mass increases, cytoplasm is doubled, and DNA is duplicated.
What are the three stages of interphase
G1 Phase- carbs, lipids, proteins assembled
WHat are the stages of mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What does the spindle apparatus do
moves the chromosomes.
What occurs in Prophase
2 sister chromatids are formed in each chromosome, centromere is present, cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm breaks apart and reassembles, nuclear envelop disintegrates, centrioles move to opposite pulls of the cell.
What occurs in metaphase
nuclear membrane completely brooken up, chromosomes aligned near the equator, sister chromatids at max condensation.
What occurs in anaphase
sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite pulls, cells separate.
What occurs in telophase
both daughter chromatids are at opposite poles, chromosomes return to original shape, nuclear envelope reforms, mitosis is complete.
what are homologous chromosomes
two chromosomes of each type (2n=46 in humans).
when do homologous chromosomes line up
meiosis begins with ___ germ cells and produces ___ gametes
(haploid, diploid) diploid, haploid