Homestead Act of 1862
Got people to move west because of the free 160 acres of land, and if you live 5 years tending the land it will be yours to own
Pacific Railroad Act of 1862
Government gave land to railroad companies
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver)
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
An act that broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households. leftover land was sold for money to fund US government efforts to assimilate Native Americans.
First discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, where some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found, causing many Californians to migrate there, and settle in Nevada.
Vast grassland between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Immigrants who led cattle drives to the west
The first group to live in America, who were pushed west by white settlers. They didn't know the terrain and had difficulty growing crops and assimilating into white culture.
Government Boarding Schools
Native Americans were sent to boarding schools as whites tried to assimilate Native Americans into white culture
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered, ended Indian Wars
Sacred animal used by Native Americans for clothes, weapons, food, and shelter, wasted by the whites and made Native Americans angry
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone in 1876
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry. He also used the Bessemer steel-making process first (1835-1919)
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses, uused horizontal integration and eliminated all competition (1794-1877)
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist who gave much of money to Metropolitan Museum of Art and Morgan Library in NY
United States industrialist who made a fortune in the oil business and gave money away to Rockefeller Foundation and other charities; monopolized oil industry (1839-1937)
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Buying of all aspects of a product from raw materials to distribution Ex. Carnegie
Buying and selling of goods throughout a country made possible by railroads
Combination of two or more companies into a single firm
The concept of building an economy out of large corporations that manufacture goods rather than agricultural production
A market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies
The Gilded Age
1877-1900; rapid industrialization, urbanization, immigration; rise of big business and the labor movement; the Populist movement
Bessemer Steel-making process
Made steel-making faster and cheaper
Alexander Graham Bell
People who'd built fortunes by competing with smaller businesses
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production
An organization of workers that tries to improve working conditions, wages, and benefits for its members
Stop work in order to press demands
An order that will stop a particular action or enforce a rule or regulation
Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with employer for a contract
Against the Carnegie Steel Company when workers retaliated against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia. (1892)
Railway workers strike for higher wages against the Pullman Company, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction to end the strike. (1894)
Coeur d' Alene
Silver miners went on strike in 1892; broken up by troops in Idaho.
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred
Knights of Labor
First effort to create national union; open to most workers; vague; no clear goals; weak leadership and organization. Failed
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
United States labor leader who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World (1830-1930)
Creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
A political philosophy supporting the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite.
An association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
An organization founded in late 1870s; worked for rights of farmers
Political party that farmers sought refuge in at first, combined inflationary appeal of earlier Greenabackers w/ program for improving labor
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.
A monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold