the vietnam war
1963-73, defined America for 3 decades, first war America lost and to introduce the US to a modern view of war as something morally ambiguous
1968-72, ran against Robert Kennedy-was assassinated, was a republican, Machiavellian (end defines the means), sec. of state: henry kissinger, vietnamization/ secret bombings/secret peace talks
1968, , the Viet Cong launched an all out assault on US and South Vietnamese forces and positions in South Vietnam.,They were able to take over a few cities and hold out for a few months in some of them.
,The worst of the fighting was in the city of Hue, where the Viet Cong held out for a month, When they realized they were not going to be able to hold the city, they killed a tremendous number of the civilians in the city. This is called the "Massacre at Hue",In the end, the US was able to take back all the land they had lost, and they were able to destroy the Viet Cong. It was a military success.
After this , the North Vietnamese Army was forced to invade South Vietnam.
There could no longer be any illusion that the South was fighting a Civil War,The North was clearly invading the South.
Paris Peace Accords
1973, US will leave in 60-90 days North Vietnam will not attack the South
North can keep all their troops in the South
US pulls out
North starts attacking the South, South surrenders and now there is one Vietnam
End of South Vietnam
the French colonies of Cambodia and Laos and Vietnam were formerly organized, their rule was resisted, WWI Japan took over this area
a group of Vietnamese came together to form an official resistance group, leader was Ho Chi Minh, nationalist
Ho Chi Minh
he got his education in Paris. It was there that he became a communist and became energized in his movement for Vietnamese freedom, Viet Minh ruler, Ho gave a speech about Vietnamese freedom that very much followed the Declaration of Independence. In doing so, the War for Vietnam's independence began, for the North, thought all of vietnam should be under their rule so started to take over the south
president at the time, refused to give aid to the French and their base was taken over,This was the beginning of the end for the French in Vietnam.
1954, decided the french war, ▪ The nation of Vietnam, like Korea before it, was divided into an North and a South.The North was Communist and the South was capitalist. The plan was for them to be united with elections in 1956. Needless to say, they were not united.
The North decided they would do this by training and inserting guerilla soldiers into the South in order to destabilize the South. This group of soldiers became known as the Charlie to the United States.They are guerilla soldiers: killed a few people a day 16/day
the US believed this, stated that if one of the nations in Southeast Asia became communist then they all would, as a result the US supported the government of South Vietnam completely, not the wisest of moves, once again
something of a dictatorship after the Geneva Convention.
◦ The leader was a man named Ngo Dinh Diem.
▪ He was a hyper nationalist who killed those who opposed him.
▪ He was an extremely devout Catholic in a Buddhist nation, which didn't sit well with his people.
▪ In his favor, as far as the US was concerned, was that he was also very anti-communist.
▪ Eventually, Diem was killed by a group from the Vietnamese Military.
◦ The US went along with the Army in their idea to remove Diem, but it was surprised to know that he had been killed.
◦ The US thought they were just going to remove him.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
President claims that these boats were attacked by Vietnamese boats
LBJ wants to go to war
Passed by congress, saying that LBJ can do whatever he wants to fight Vietnamese aggressors
We start getting ready for war
escalates the war...
against the Viet Cong, partner with South Vietnamese Army
protracted, war of attrition, limited
we don't care what happens we are going to keep fighting until you stop, win at all costs ,we didn't just bomb we fought carefully
A mass killing of civilians (babies, women, kids) in Vietnam, William Calley went crazzzyy and him and a group of American soldiers lined them up and shot them ,Other American Soldiers said if you don't stop then we will shoot you
Search and Destroy
Soldiers went on patrol in small groups in order to pull out the Viet Cong and baiting them into attacking
Cross Over Point
This meant that the US was killing more people than the Viet Cong could replace.,This meant that the Viet Cong was getting smaller and the war was coming to a close.
leaks the pentagon papers, show everything that the U.S. if up to huge explosion makes the government look bad in 1971
Nixons goal was to get the Vietnamese to fight the war
He wanted ARVN to take over the bulk of the fighting so he could draw US troops out.
Everyone knew that the forces in the South were being supplied by the Ho Chi Minh trail.
He started bombing it, which was illegal because we were not at war with Cambodia and he got no clearance for it from Congress.
◦ This only came out later.
Ho Chi Trial
a network of jungle paths. the north vietnamese used the ho chi minh trial to bring weapons abd supplies into south vietnam
secret peace talks
Nixon began peace talks with the North Vietnamese.
He wanted to be able to withdraw without losing face.
The North, however, were uninterested in treaties or half measures, so the peace talks did not go very far.
Election of 1972
nixon was about to win because of his popularity
He thinks about breaking into the democratic headquarters
They get caught! Everyone is confused
Woodward & Bernstein: reporters start looking into things and a informant (Deep Throat), they start looking at Watergate and see that Nixon was in charge of it
Nixon was so paranoid that he recorded every conversation he had with someone, he had to turn them in with 15 minutes missing....
Congress is about to impeach him when he resigns
President, Nixons VP, Paris Peace Accords
people who don't have to do anything that they are morally against