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cystic fibrosis, albinism

example of recessive genetic disorder

cystic fibrosis

What is the most common recessive genetic disorder?

thick mucus

Symptom of cystic fibrosis

altered genes resulting in the absence of skin pigment

What is albinism?

chromosome 15

Where is Tay-Sachs disease located?

absence of an enzyme that breaks down fatty tissue

What causes Tay-Sachs disease?

mental deterioration

What is a result of Tay-Sachs disease?

body cannot digest galactose

What is galactosemia?

Huntington's disease

Examples of dominant genetic disorder

affects the nervous system

What is huntingtons disease?

loss of brain function, emotional disturbances

What are the results of huntingtons disease?

most common form of dwarfism

What is Achondroplasia?

Dominant disorders are more fatal, so they can't reproduce and the gene carrying the disorder can't be passed down.

Why are recessive disorders more common than dominant disorders?

diagram that traces the inheritance of a particular trait through several generations

What is a pedigree?

both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition

What is co-dominance?

sickle cell

example of co-dominance disease

africa

Where are sickle cell and malaria most common?

higher resistance to malaria

Carriers for the sickle-cell trait are what to malaria?

sickle-cell trait is higher

Death rate for malaria is lower when...

have sickle-cell, but can fight off malaria

What does it mean when your genotype is SS?

can't fight off malaria, so most likely to contract malaria

What does it mean when your genotype is AA?

carrying sickle-cell helps fight off malaria

What does it mean when your genotype is AS?

discovered red blood cells have a specific protein

What did Dr. Karl Landsteiner do?

multiple alleles

What is inheritance of blood controlled by?

IAIA and IAi

possible genotypes for blood type A

IBIB and IBi

possible genotypes for blood type B

IAIB

possible genotypes for blood type AB

ii

possible genotypes for blood type O

A and O

A can receive blood from...

B and O

B can receive blood from...

A, B, AB, O

AB can receive blood from...

AB

What is the universal recipient?

O

O can receive blood from...

A and AB

A can donate to..

B and AB

B can donate to..

AB

AB can donate to...

A, B, AB, and O

O can donate to...

O

What is the universal doner?

protein connected to the cell that signals to other cells what type it is

What is an antigen?

looks out for different blood type cells to get rid of

What is an antibody?

Antigen A

Antigen for blood type A

Antigen B

Antigen for blood type B

Antigen A and Antigen B

Antigen for blood type AB

No antigens

Antigen for blood type O

Anti B antibodies

Antibody for blood type A

Anti A antibodies

Antibody for blood type B

No antibodies

Antibody for blood type AB

Anti A antibodies and Anti B antibodies

Antibody for blood type O

one trait controlled by 2 alleles

What is a polygenic trait?

skin color, height, eye color, fingerprint patterns

Examples of polygenic traits

color

What does Gene 1 control?

expression of B

What does Gene 2 control?

involves an extra autosome 21

What is down syndrome?

female missing an X chromosome

What is Turner's syndrome?

female has an extra X chromosome

What is Trisomy X?

male with an extra X chromosome

What is kleinefielders syndrome?

male is infertile

What does XYY mean?

a picture of a person's chromosomes, arranged in their homologous pairs

What is a karyotype?

to detect chromosomal abnormalities and diagnose certain types of genetic disorders

What are karyotypes used for?

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