Pharmacology Final Exam study guide

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What is the suffix for "male hormones"?

sterone

What is the suffix for "histamine H2 antagonists"?

dine

What are the suffixes for "corticosteroids" that are for injections?

lone and sone

Physical dependence

body function depends on the substance

Psychological dependence

compulsive need of a substance

Tolerance

ability to take more of a substance without different effects

Habituation

pattern of repeated use where the person feels better with use of a substance than without it

Addiction

loss of control over use of a substance with a compulsion or use for the substance

Substance abuse

socially unacceptable use of a substance for non-therapeutic use

Describe the pharmacological effect of alcohol

CNS depressant (decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death)

How do H2 antagonists work?

inhibits the secretions of acid in the stomach
[alters the pH in the stomach]

How do antacids work?

neutralizes, or slows down, the acid in the stomach
[alters the pH in the stomach]

What should a nurse educate a client who is taking Lomotil for diarrhea?

no alcohol, do not operate machinery, do not rely on the drug, do not overuse the drug, and take as directed

What classes of medications would a client with hypothyroidism be more sensitive to?

CNS depressants

What is the main action of estrogen in birth control?

suppresses ovulation

What should a nurse teach a patient taking Citrucel?

drink with lots of water

What should a nurse teach a patient who is receiving an enzyme replacement such as Pancrease?

it helps digestion, made from cows and pigs, don't take it if patient has cystic fibrosis, and don't crush it

Discuss the client teaching required for a client taking "ophthalmic solutions"

do not use discolored solutions and do not touch eye with dropper

Discuss the client teaching required for a client taking "iron therapy"

no milk, take vitamin C, the stool will be black and tarry

Discuss the client teaching required for a client taking "oral birth contraceptives"

take at same time everyday, if you miss one day take it as soon as possible, if you miss two or more days use another form of contraceptive, and if patient smokes or has old age they are at risk for strokes

What is parenteral administration?

injections (IV, IM, ID)

What is enteral administration?

any administration that involves any part of the GI tract (oral, rectal)

What is a short acting insulin?

Regular (Humulin R) and (Novolin R)

What are some intermediate acting insulins?

Lente (Humulin N)
NPH (Novolin N)

What are some symptoms for "hypothyroid" that the nurse would assess for to determine if treatment is effective?

depression, edema, fatigue, intolerance to cold

What are some symptoms for "hyperthyroid" that the nurse would assess for to determine if treatment is effective?

weight loss, tachycardia

Which symptoms of hyperthyroid require immediate intervention?

any "thyroid storm" symptoms (sore throat, rash, fever, tachycardia, congestive heart failure)

What is Iodism?

excessive amount of iodine in the body due to long-term administration of iodine

What are the signs and symptoms of Iodism?

frontal headache, excessive salivation, and skin eruptions

What is an emollient?

an inclusive barrier on the skin (softens and soothes the skin)

Is the eye drop procedure the same for adults and children?

yes

Is the ear drop procedure the same for adults and children?

no

How would the nurse explain to a client that a topical drug works?

it slowly gets absorbed in the skin
(about 24 hours)

Name some CNS depressants

alcohol, narcotics, anti-anxiety drugs, barbiturates

What are the side effects of antacids containing magnesium and aluminum?

constipation and diarrhea

Discuss the safety of antithyroid medications during pregnancy

don't take it
(not safe)

How does salicylic acid work?

gets rid of excess keratin (excess skin)

What is the purpose of mydriatic drugs?

dilate pupils, treat inflammation, break/prevent adhesions, preparations for surgery

What should the nurse consider prior to the application of a topical drug to a client?

clean the area, dry the area, and wipe off old ointment

When should you administer "H2 antagonists"?

before meals

When should you administer "antacids"?

after meals

What is the risk factor that must be considered for a client considering oral birth contraceptives?

blood clots (especially if the patient is a smoker or has old age)

What is the problem with overuse of laxatives?

the patient can develop a dependency or tolerance to the drug

Discuss the potential complications of vomiting (emesis)

aspiration (check their gag reflex)
[the stomach acids may become more basic]

Discuss the need for fluids to prevent constipation

3-4L of water for bulk-laxatives

When should emetics be used?

for poison

When should emetics be avoided?

for gasoline

When is Reglan contraindicated?

seizures or epilepsies

Can ipecac and and activated charcoal be given?

no

Discuss the treatment of of topical fungal infections

it takes time to clear up

Can topical medications have systemic effects?

yes
(some do; some don't)

Name the commonly abused amphetamines, barbiturates, hallucinogens

speed, heroine, LSD, oxycontin, ritalin

What should a client taking progesterone containing oral contraceptives do if they believe they have become pregnant?

stop right away

What can a nurse recommend to a client to increase the absorption of iron?

vitamin C

What should be avoided because it blocks the absorption of iron?

milk products

NSAIS's are likely to cause hypersensitivity in which clients?

patients that are allergic to aspirin

Describe the use of ACTH

increases sugar in the blood

What are the deficiencies experiences by a client with cystic fibrosis?

pancreatic enzymes
(digestive enzymes are blocked)

Define thyroid storm

severe hyperthyroidism where the temperature increases, heart rate increases, fever develops, and tachycardia occurs
(can lead to congestive heart failure)

What nursing recommendation should be made any time a client is given a prescription for an anti-bacterial?

be compliant, take as directed, take till finished, and report side effects

What assessments are required for a client taking pituitary hormones?

height, weight, and apical pulse

Name the most common adverse effects of aminoglycosides

nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and ototoxicity (hearing damage)

Identify GI irritants other than medications

spicy foods, alcohol, smoking, and caffeine

What are the clinical indications for androgens?

male secondary sexual characteristics

What is Type I diabetes?

IDDM (cannot make insulin)

What is Type II diabetes?

NIDDM (can make insulin but not enough)

What does IDDM stand for?

insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

What does NIDDM stand for?

not insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

Which type of diabetes is juvenile onset?

Type I diabetes

Which type of diabetes is adult onset?

Type II diabetes

What are the fat soluble vitamins?

A,D,E,K

What are the water soluble vitamins?

B vitamins and C

What are the common side effects and safety precautions for skeletal muscle relaxants?

sedation, dizziness, muscle weakness, GI upset, insomnia, don't drink alcohol, and don't drive or operate machinery

What are the side effects of taking estrogen birth control pills?

embolism and stroke

What are the side effects of taking progesterone birth control pills?

breakthrough bleeding (bleeding when not on period)

Discuss nursing interventions to decrease constipation

increase fiber, fluid, and exercise
(can administer laxatives if MD orders it)

What if a patient is on a "long-term estrogen" administration?

take patient's blood pressure often

When should iron be given?

on an empty stomach

What type of injection would a nurse administer for iron?

IM (intramuscular)

What temperature should ear drops be administered at?

room temperature

What do patients with thyroid issues have trouble with?

sleeping

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