pattern of repeated use where the person feels better with use of a substance than without it
Describe the pharmacological effect of alcohol
CNS depressant (decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death)
How do H2 antagonists work?
inhibits the secretions of acid in the stomach
[alters the pH in the stomach]
How do antacids work?
neutralizes, or slows down, the acid in the stomach
[alters the pH in the stomach]
What should a nurse educate a client who is taking Lomotil for diarrhea?
no alcohol, do not operate machinery, do not rely on the drug, do not overuse the drug, and take as directed
What classes of medications would a client with hypothyroidism be more sensitive to?
What should a nurse teach a patient who is receiving an enzyme replacement such as Pancrease?
it helps digestion, made from cows and pigs, don't take it if patient has cystic fibrosis, and don't crush it
Discuss the client teaching required for a client taking "ophthalmic solutions"
do not use discolored solutions and do not touch eye with dropper
Discuss the client teaching required for a client taking "iron therapy"
no milk, take vitamin C, the stool will be black and tarry
Discuss the client teaching required for a client taking "oral birth contraceptives"
take at same time everyday, if you miss one day take it as soon as possible, if you miss two or more days use another form of contraceptive, and if patient smokes or has old age they are at risk for strokes
What is enteral administration?
any administration that involves any part of the GI tract (oral, rectal)
What are some symptoms for "hypothyroid" that the nurse would assess for to determine if treatment is effective?
depression, edema, fatigue, intolerance to cold
What are some symptoms for "hyperthyroid" that the nurse would assess for to determine if treatment is effective?
weight loss, tachycardia
Which symptoms of hyperthyroid require immediate intervention?
any "thyroid storm" symptoms (sore throat, rash, fever, tachycardia, congestive heart failure)
What are the signs and symptoms of Iodism?
frontal headache, excessive salivation, and skin eruptions
How would the nurse explain to a client that a topical drug works?
it slowly gets absorbed in the skin
(about 24 hours)
What is the purpose of mydriatic drugs?
dilate pupils, treat inflammation, break/prevent adhesions, preparations for surgery
What should the nurse consider prior to the application of a topical drug to a client?
clean the area, dry the area, and wipe off old ointment
What is the risk factor that must be considered for a client considering oral birth contraceptives?
blood clots (especially if the patient is a smoker or has old age)
What is the problem with overuse of laxatives?
the patient can develop a dependency or tolerance to the drug
Discuss the potential complications of vomiting (emesis)
aspiration (check their gag reflex)
[the stomach acids may become more basic]
Name the commonly abused amphetamines, barbiturates, hallucinogens
speed, heroine, LSD, oxycontin, ritalin
What should a client taking progesterone containing oral contraceptives do if they believe they have become pregnant?
stop right away
NSAIS's are likely to cause hypersensitivity in which clients?
patients that are allergic to aspirin
What are the deficiencies experiences by a client with cystic fibrosis?
(digestive enzymes are blocked)
Define thyroid storm
severe hyperthyroidism where the temperature increases, heart rate increases, fever develops, and tachycardia occurs
(can lead to congestive heart failure)
What nursing recommendation should be made any time a client is given a prescription for an anti-bacterial?
be compliant, take as directed, take till finished, and report side effects
What assessments are required for a client taking pituitary hormones?
height, weight, and apical pulse
Name the most common adverse effects of aminoglycosides
nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) and ototoxicity (hearing damage)
What are the common side effects and safety precautions for skeletal muscle relaxants?
sedation, dizziness, muscle weakness, GI upset, insomnia, don't drink alcohol, and don't drive or operate machinery
What are the side effects of taking progesterone birth control pills?
breakthrough bleeding (bleeding when not on period)
Discuss nursing interventions to decrease constipation
increase fiber, fluid, and exercise
(can administer laxatives if MD orders it)