Sterility may result from uncorrected _____, or undescended testes.
Spermatozoa are produced in minute ducts called _____.
Testosterone is secreted by _____ cells of the testes.
The _____ is a countercurrent heat exchanger that keeps the testis cool.
Until ejaculation, most sperm is stored in the _____.
About 30% of the semen is produced by the _____, a medial gland that encloses part of the urethra.
Erection results largely from the vasocongestion of the two _____ on the dorsal side of the penis.
A sperm penetrates an egg by means of enzymes from its _____.
The first haploid cell produced in spermatogenesis is the _____.
The acidity of the vagina would be harmful to sperm if it were not neutralized by the semen.
Spermatogenesis requires a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature.
The male scrotum is homologous to the female labia majora.
Testosterone has no effect on spermatogenesis unless follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is present.
Sperm heads are embedded in the sustentacular cells until the spermatozoa are mature.
k. mesonephric duct
Embryonic precursor of the male reproductive tract
Has receptors on the embryonic gonad if the gonad has a Y chromosome
a. nitric oxide
Inability to produce this would result in impotence
A fertilized egg
A male secondary sex characteristic
Cord that guides the descending testes into the fetal scrotum
Muscle that elevates or lowers the scrotum
h. FSH uct
Must be present if testosterone is to have any effect on the testes
Minute blood sinuses in the erectile tissues of the penis
h. FSH uct
Inhibin selectively suppresses its secretion
The final cellular transformation in the production of spermatozoa is called
The genetic sex of a child is determined by
a. prenatal hormone exposure.
b. unknown factors.
c. the egg.
d. the sperm.
e. both parents equally.
Which of the following is/are female secondary sex organ(s)?
e. scent glands
Hypospadias is a birth defect that results from
a. incomplete regression of the paramesonephric ducts.
b. failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum.
c. urethral opening on the side of the penis.
d. incomplete fusion of the labioscrotal folds.
e. a lack of androgen receptors.
Which of the following is an androgen?
b. human chorionic gonadotropin
c. mullerian inhibiting factor
d. interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
e. follicle-stimulating hormone
The germinal epithelilum of the testis consists of germ cells and
a. interstitial cells.
b. sustentacular cells.
d. a tunica albuginea.
e. a tunica dartos.
To get from the testis to the epididymis, sperm must pass through
a. the inguinal canal.
b. the spermatic cord.
c. the ductus deferens.
d. the efferent ductules.
e. the ejaculatory ducts.
Men only have one _____ but have two of all the rest of these.
a. bulbourethral gland(s)
b. prostate gland(s)
c. ejaculatory gland(s)
d. seminal vesicles(s)
e. corpus cavernosum (corpora cavernosa)
The heat exchanger that prevents afferent blood from overheating the testes is
a. the rete testis.
b. the epididymis.
c. the pampiniform plexus.
d. the blood-testis barrier.
e. the helicine atery.
The foreskin of the penis is called
a. the prepuce.
b. the crus.
c. the glans.
d. the frenulum.
e. the raphe.
Vasectomy, a procedure for surgical sterilization of the male, entails removal of part of the
a. prostatic urethra.
b. seminal vesicles.
c. seminiferous tubules.
d. corpus spongiosum.
e. ductus deferens.
The energy for sperm mobility comes from
Fibrinogen, a clotting protein, is found not only in the blood but also in the secretion of
a. the testes.
b. the epididymis.
c. the seminal vesicles.
d. the bulbourethtral glands.
e. the prostate.
The peristaltic propulsion of sperm along the ductus deferens is called
Penile cancer has been linked to human papilloma cancer. What other conditions is this cancer related to?
b. non-retractable foreskins
d. tight jeans
The penis of a male embryo develops from
a. the gonadal ridge.
b. the phallus.
c. the urogenital folds.
d. the labioscrotal folds.
e. the mesonephric duct.
The testes receive a poor oxygen supply mainly because
a. they do not have any arteries.
b. the blood-testis barrier prevents them from receiving very much blood.
c. the testicular artery has a very low blood pressure.
d. hemoglobin does not unload oxygen at low temperatures.
e. the pampiniform plexus consumes most oxygen in the blood before it reaches the testis.
At what stage does a developing sperm cell begin to grow a tail?
c. primary spermatocyte
d. secondary spermatocyte
Half of the penis, called its _____, is internal and normally cannot be seen.
The first hormone to trigger the changes of puberty is
a. gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
b. follicle-stimulating hormone.
d. interstitial cell-stimulating hormone.
e. human chorionic gonadotropin.
Contractions of the female reproductive tract may be stimulated by _____ in the semen.
The release of an egg from an ovary is called _____.
The constricted part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is called the _____.
Attachment of the conceptus to the uterine wall is called _____.
Hyperemesis gravidarum is a state of severe _____ early in pregnancy.
Parturition is the process of _____.
Most of the female's eggs degenerate before she is born.
Prolactin is not secreted until after a woman gives birth.
Cow's milk does not contain enough protein for adequate infant nutrition.
Colostrum has less protein than cow's milk.
The serosa of the uterus is called the perimetrium.
Milk flows into a single large lactiferous duct immediately behind the nipple.
A adolescent girl's growth of axillary hair and apocrine glands is stimulated by androgens.
Most girls do not ovulate during the first year of menstruation.
Estrogen is a risk factor that increases the incidence of certain types if breast cancer.
A woman's blood cholesterol level tends to rise after menopause.
Estrogen causes granulosa cells of a follicle to be more sensitive to FSH.
d. myoepithelial cells
Target cells of oxytocin
Degeneration of ovarian follicles that never ovulate
Binds the ovary to the broad ligament
b. anterior pituitary
Suppressed by both inhibin and dopamine
Partially composes the menstrual fluid
Vaginal spaces that surround the cervix
l. uterine tube
Site of fertilization
b. anterior pituitary
Source of prolactin and luteinizing hormones
Mammary secretion that precedes milk
An erectile tissue present in the penis but absent from the clitoris is
a. the corpus albicans.
b. the tunica albuginea.
c. the corpus spongiosum.
d. the corpus cavernosum.
e. the corpus luteum.
Just before it is withdrawn by a nursing infant, milk enters a dilated sac behind the
a. the lactiferous duct.
b. the lactiferous sinus.
c. the lcatiferous bulb.
d. the areola.
e. the lacteal.
Development of a girl's breast at puberty is called
d. the larche.
The second half of the menstrual cycle is regulated largely by
a. the corpus luteum.
b. the corpus albicans.
c. the corpus spongiosum.
d. the chloasma.
e. the placenta.
Pregnancy tests are based on the detection of _____ in the urine.
In the first 2 to 3 days postpartum, the mammary glands secrete _____ rather than milk.
Estrogen causes all of the following effects in adolescent girls except
a. growth of the breasts.
b. growth of the pubic and axillary hair.
c. vaginal metaplasia.
d. endometrial mitosis.
e. fat deposition.
The superior curvature of the uterus is called
a. the fundus.
b. the ciorpus.
c. the isthmus.
d. the infundibulum.
e. the body.
Blood is supplied to the endometrium by the _____ arteries between the endometrial glands.
The vestibular bulbs serve to
a. secrete mucus into the uterus.
b. constrict the vagina during intercourse.
c. lubricate the cervical canal.
d. lubricate the vagina.
e. neutralize vaginal acidity.
Ovulation is triggered by
Which of these is a consequence of the ischemic phase of the uterine cycle?
b. endometrial necrosis
c. endometrial mitosis
d. endometrial secretion
The ischemic phase of the uterine cycle is brought on by vascular spasms, which in turn are a response to
c. rising LH level.
d. falling progesterone level.
e. rising progesterone level.
A value of the vaginal transudate is to
a. keep the uterus moist.
b. aid implantation.
c. provide lubrication.
d. flush unfertilized eggs from the reproductive tract.
e. neutralize the acidity of the semen.
After ovulation, an egg has about _____ to be fertilized, or else it dies.
a. 6 hours
b. 12 hours
c. 24 hours
d. 2 days
e. 3 days
The layer of uterine mucosa that is shed in menstruation is called
a. the stratum basale.
b. the stratum functionalis.
c. the myometrium.
d. the perimetrium.
e. the stratum vasculare.
A fetus is nourished by way of a disc-shaped organ, the _____, attached to the uterine wall.
Eventually, the placenta secretes the major hormones that regulate pregnancy. Until then, the main source of hormones is
a. the umbilical cord.
b. the endometrium.
c. the corpus luteum.
d. the pituitary.
e. the amnion.
Milk is not secreted until after birth, mainly because
a. the mammary ducts and acini do not develop until then.
b. the mammary gland cells do not respond to prolactin until then.
c. prolactin is not secreted until then.
d. oxytocin is not secreted until then.
e. human placental lactogen is released at birth.
Which of these occurs in first-stage labor?
What is one advantage of breast-feeding to the mother?
a. It promotes involution of the corpus luteum.
b. It promotes the return of fertility.
c. It flushes excess calcium from the body.
d. It stimulates gonadotropin secretion.
e. It promotes involution of the uterus.
In early pregnancy, _____ stimulates growth of the corpus luteum.
a. adrenocorticotropic hormone
b. human placental lactogen
c. human chorionic somatomammotropin
d. human chorionic gonadotropin
During pregnancy, _____ elevates the mother's metabolic rate.
a. human chorionic thyrotropin
d. parathyrid hormone
Autolysis is a process that results in
b. postpartum shrinkage of the uterus.
c. labor contractions.
d. colostrum secretion.
e. milk secretion.
Thinning of the cervical tissue during first-stage labor is called
In a woman who is neither pregnant nor nursing, milk secretion is inhibited by
c. prolactin-inhibiting factor.
Respiratory distress syndrome results from a deficiency of pulmonary _____ in the lungs of a premature infant.
The normal head-down position of a full-term fetus is called the _____ position.
Most fetal blood in the pulmonary trunk follows a shunt to the aorta called the ____ instead of circulating through the lungs.
A conceptus is anchored to the endometrium by root-like outgrowths of the syncytiotrophoblast called _____.
For the first 8 weeks after ovulation, a conceptus depends primarily on _____ nutrition.
When the three primary germ layers have formed, an individual is at a stage of development called the _____.
A fertilized egg is called a/an _____ when chromosomes of both parents have mingled to form a diploid set.
Any abnormality present at birth is called a _____.
The transition from trophoblastic to placental nutrition depends on an increase in placental conductivity.
Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa are incapable of fertilizing an egg.
Immaturity of the liver is a factor in the edema of premature infants.
"Caps" that sterilize the ends of each chromosome
Visible networks of dilated blood capillaries, especially common on the face
Organ system directly affected by photoaging
Failure of two homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis
Any agent that causes anatomical birth defects
Cells produced by cleavage of the zygote
t. fast and slow block
Process that prevents too many sperm from fertilizing one egg
Enzyme that facilitates fertilization
Process by which spermatozoa become capable of fertilizing an egg
u. turner syndrome
Results from an XO condition in the zygote
Most fetal blood bypasses the liver by way of a shunt called
a. the ductus venosus.
b. the ductus arteriosus.
c. the foramen ovale.
d. the umbilical vein.
e. the fossa ovalis.
At 5 months gestation, a fetus is covered with a cheesy sebaceous secretion called
c. vernix casecosa.
e. uterine milk.
Which of these lists the stages of prenatal development in correct order?
a. cleavage, zygote, morula, trophoblast, embryo, fetus
b. zygote, morula, cleavage, embryo, trophoblast, fetus
c. zygote, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, embryo, fetus
d. zygote, embryo, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, fetus
e. embryo, zygote, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, fetus
The proportion of sperm in the vagina that make it to the immediate vicinity of an egg is
a. 83% to 88%.
b. 60% to 62%.
c. 0.1% to 1%.
d. 1 in 100,000.
e. 1 in 1,000,000.
The digital rays of a fetus give rise to
a. arms and legs.
b. fingers and toes.
c. ribs and intercostal muscles.
d. extensor digitorum muscles.
e. radial muscles of the iris.
The round ligament of an adult liver is a remnant of the _____ of the fetus.
b. falciform ligament
c. medial umbilical ligament
d. umbilical vein
e. ductus venosus
A teratogen is most likely to cause
a. a malformed head.
c. childhood cancer.