A & P 3 Study Guide 3

Created by pbrowe01 

Upgrade to
remove ads

cryptochordism

Sterility may result from uncorrected _____, or undescended testes.

seminiferous tubules

Spermatozoa are produced in minute ducts called _____.

Interstitial

Testosterone is secreted by _____ cells of the testes.

pampaniform plexus

The _____ is a countercurrent heat exchanger that keeps the testis cool.

epididymis

Until ejaculation, most sperm is stored in the _____.

prostate

About 30% of the semen is produced by the _____, a medial gland that encloses part of the urethra.

corpora cavernosa

Erection results largely from the vasocongestion of the two _____ on the dorsal side of the penis.

acrosome

A sperm penetrates an egg by means of enzymes from its _____.

secondary spermatocyte

The first haploid cell produced in spermatogenesis is the _____.

True

The acidity of the vagina would be harmful to sperm if it were not neutralized by the semen.

True

Spermatogenesis requires a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature.

True

The male scrotum is homologous to the female labia majora.

True

Testosterone has no effect on spermatogenesis unless follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is present.

True

Sperm heads are embedded in the sustentacular cells until the spermatozoa are mature.

k. mesonephric duct

Embryonic precursor of the male reproductive tract

c. HCG

Has receptors on the embryonic gonad if the gonad has a Y chromosome

a. nitric oxide

Inability to produce this would result in impotence

l. zygote

A fertilized egg

b. beard

A male secondary sex characteristic

t. gubernaculum

Cord that guides the descending testes into the fetal scrotum

o. cremaster

Muscle that elevates or lowers the scrotum

h. FSH uct

Must be present if testosterone is to have any effect on the testes

i. lacunae

Minute blood sinuses in the erectile tissues of the penis

h. FSH uct

Inhibin selectively suppresses its secretion

b

The final cellular transformation in the production of spermatozoa is called
a. climacteric.
b. spermiogenesis.
c. spermatogenesis.
d. detumescence.
e. resolution.

d

The genetic sex of a child is determined by
a. prenatal hormone exposure.
b. unknown factors.
c. the egg.
d. the sperm.
e. both parents equally.

b

Which of the following is/are female secondary sex organ(s)?
a. ovaries
b. uterus
c. breasts
d. ova
e. scent glands

c

Hypospadias is a birth defect that results from
a. incomplete regression of the paramesonephric ducts.
b. failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum.
c. urethral opening on the side of the penis.
d. incomplete fusion of the labioscrotal folds.
e. a lack of androgen receptors.

a

Which of the following is an androgen?
a. testosterone
b. human chorionic gonadotropin
c. mullerian inhibiting factor
d. interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
e. follicle-stimulating hormone

b

The germinal epithelilum of the testis consists of germ cells and
a. interstitial cells.
b. sustentacular cells.
c. spermatogonia.
d. a tunica albuginea.
e. a tunica dartos.

d

To get from the testis to the epididymis, sperm must pass through
a. the inguinal canal.
b. the spermatic cord.
c. the ductus deferens.
d. the efferent ductules.
e. the ejaculatory ducts.

b

Men only have one _____ but have two of all the rest of these.
a. bulbourethral gland(s)
b. prostate gland(s)
c. ejaculatory gland(s)
d. seminal vesicles(s)
e. corpus cavernosum (corpora cavernosa)

c

The heat exchanger that prevents afferent blood from overheating the testes is
a. the rete testis.
b. the epididymis.
c. the pampiniform plexus.
d. the blood-testis barrier.
e. the helicine atery.

a

The foreskin of the penis is called
a. the prepuce.
b. the crus.
c. the glans.
d. the frenulum.
e. the raphe.

e

Vasectomy, a procedure for surgical sterilization of the male, entails removal of part of the
a. prostatic urethra.
b. seminal vesicles.
c. seminiferous tubules.
d. corpus spongiosum.
e. ductus deferens.

c

The energy for sperm mobility comes from
a. prostaglandins.
b. sucrose.
c. fructose.
d. galactose.
e. spermine.

c

Fibrinogen, a clotting protein, is found not only in the blood but also in the secretion of
a. the testes.
b. the epididymis.
c. the seminal vesicles.
d. the bulbourethtral glands.
e. the prostate.

d

The peristaltic propulsion of sperm along the ductus deferens is called
a. intromission.
b. myotonia.
c. expulsion.
d. emission.
e. coition.

b

Penile cancer has been linked to human papilloma cancer. What other conditions is this cancer related to?
a. varicocele
b. non-retractable foreskins
c. cryptoorchidism
d. tight jeans
e. circumcision

b

The penis of a male embryo develops from
a. the gonadal ridge.
b. the phallus.
c. the urogenital folds.
d. the labioscrotal folds.
e. the mesonephric duct.

c

The testes receive a poor oxygen supply mainly because
a. they do not have any arteries.
b. the blood-testis barrier prevents them from receiving very much blood.
c. the testicular artery has a very low blood pressure.
d. hemoglobin does not unload oxygen at low temperatures.
e. the pampiniform plexus consumes most oxygen in the blood before it reaches the testis.

b

At what stage does a developing sperm cell begin to grow a tail?
a. spermatozoa
b. spermatid
c. primary spermatocyte
d. secondary spermatocyte
e. spermatogonium

e

Half of the penis, called its _____, is internal and normally cannot be seen.
a. glans
b. corona
c. bulb
d. shaft
e. root

a

The first hormone to trigger the changes of puberty is
a. gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
b. follicle-stimulating hormone.
c. testosterone.
d. interstitial cell-stimulating hormone.
e. human chorionic gonadotropin.

c

Contractions of the female reproductive tract may be stimulated by _____ in the semen.
a. spermine
b. fructose
c. prostaglandins
d. fibrinolysin
e. leukotrienes

ovulation

The release of an egg from an ovary is called _____.

cervix

The constricted part of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina is called the _____.

implantation

Attachment of the conceptus to the uterine wall is called _____.

vomiting

Hyperemesis gravidarum is a state of severe _____ early in pregnancy.

giving birth

Parturition is the process of _____.

True

Most of the female's eggs degenerate before she is born.

False

Prolactin is not secreted until after a woman gives birth.

False

Cow's milk does not contain enough protein for adequate infant nutrition.

False

Colostrum has less protein than cow's milk.

True

The serosa of the uterus is called the perimetrium.

False

Milk flows into a single large lactiferous duct immediately behind the nipple.

True

A adolescent girl's growth of axillary hair and apocrine glands is stimulated by androgens.

True

Most girls do not ovulate during the first year of menstruation.

True

Estrogen is a risk factor that increases the incidence of certain types if breast cancer.

True

A woman's blood cholesterol level tends to rise after menopause.

True

Estrogen causes granulosa cells of a follicle to be more sensitive to FSH.

d. myoepithelial cells

Target cells of oxytocin

r. atresia

Degeneration of ovarian follicles that never ovulate

i. mesovarium

Binds the ovary to the broad ligament

b. anterior pituitary

Suppressed by both inhibin and dopamine

e. endometrium

Partially composes the menstrual fluid

u. fornices

Vaginal spaces that surround the cervix

l. uterine tube

Site of fertilization

b. anterior pituitary

Source of prolactin and luteinizing hormones

y. colostrum

Mammary secretion that precedes milk

o. parturition

Childbirth

c

An erectile tissue present in the penis but absent from the clitoris is
a. the corpus albicans.
b. the tunica albuginea.
c. the corpus spongiosum.
d. the corpus cavernosum.
e. the corpus luteum.

b

Just before it is withdrawn by a nursing infant, milk enters a dilated sac behind the
a. the lactiferous duct.
b. the lactiferous sinus.
c. the lcatiferous bulb.
d. the areola.
e. the lacteal.

d

Development of a girl's breast at puberty is called
a. menarche.
b. climacteric
c. pubarche.
d. the larche.
e. mammarche.

a

The second half of the menstrual cycle is regulated largely by
a. the corpus luteum.
b. the corpus albicans.
c. the corpus spongiosum.
d. the chloasma.
e. the placenta.

e

Pregnancy tests are based on the detection of _____ in the urine.
a. estrogen
b. progesterone
c. FSH
d. LH
e. HCG

d

In the first 2 to 3 days postpartum, the mammary glands secrete _____ rather than milk.
a. chloasma
b. lochia
c. lanugo
d. colostrum
e. meconium

b

Estrogen causes all of the following effects in adolescent girls except
a. growth of the breasts.
b. growth of the pubic and axillary hair.
c. vaginal metaplasia.
d. endometrial mitosis.
e. fat deposition.

a

The superior curvature of the uterus is called
a. the fundus.
b. the ciorpus.
c. the isthmus.
d. the infundibulum.
e. the body.

c

Blood is supplied to the endometrium by the _____ arteries between the endometrial glands.
a. arcunate
b. uterine
c. spiral
d. cardinal
e. gonadal

b

The vestibular bulbs serve to
a. secrete mucus into the uterus.
b. constrict the vagina during intercourse.
c. lubricate the cervical canal.
d. lubricate the vagina.
e. neutralize vaginal acidity.

a

Ovulation is triggered by
a. LH.
b. FSH.
c. estriol.
d. estradiol.
e. progesterone.

b

Which of these is a consequence of the ischemic phase of the uterine cycle?
a. implantation
b. endometrial necrosis
c. endometrial mitosis
d. endometrial secretion
e. ovulation

d

The ischemic phase of the uterine cycle is brought on by vascular spasms, which in turn are a response to
a. ovulation.
b. menstruation.
c. rising LH level.
d. falling progesterone level.
e. rising progesterone level.

c

A value of the vaginal transudate is to
a. keep the uterus moist.
b. aid implantation.
c. provide lubrication.
d. flush unfertilized eggs from the reproductive tract.
e. neutralize the acidity of the semen.

c

After ovulation, an egg has about _____ to be fertilized, or else it dies.
a. 6 hours
b. 12 hours
c. 24 hours
d. 2 days
e. 3 days

b

The layer of uterine mucosa that is shed in menstruation is called
a. the stratum basale.
b. the stratum functionalis.
c. the myometrium.
d. the perimetrium.
e. the stratum vasculare.

e

A fetus is nourished by way of a disc-shaped organ, the _____, attached to the uterine wall.
a. amnion
b. chorion
c. trophoblast
d. blastocyst
e. placenta

c

Eventually, the placenta secretes the major hormones that regulate pregnancy. Until then, the main source of hormones is
a. the umbilical cord.
b. the endometrium.
c. the corpus luteum.
d. the pituitary.
e. the amnion.

b

Milk is not secreted until after birth, mainly because
a. the mammary ducts and acini do not develop until then.
b. the mammary gland cells do not respond to prolactin until then.
c. prolactin is not secreted until then.
d. oxytocin is not secreted until then.
e. human placental lactogen is released at birth.

b

Which of these occurs in first-stage labor?
a. crowning
b. effacement
c. expulsion
d. tenting
e. involution

e

What is one advantage of breast-feeding to the mother?
a. It promotes involution of the corpus luteum.
b. It promotes the return of fertility.
c. It flushes excess calcium from the body.
d. It stimulates gonadotropin secretion.
e. It promotes involution of the uterus.

d

In early pregnancy, _____ stimulates growth of the corpus luteum.
a. adrenocorticotropic hormone
b. human placental lactogen
c. human chorionic somatomammotropin
d. human chorionic gonadotropin
e. progesterone

a

During pregnancy, _____ elevates the mother's metabolic rate.
a. human chorionic thyrotropin
b. aldosterone
c. progesterone
d. parathyrid hormone
e. relaxin

b

Autolysis is a process that results in
a. menstruation.
b. postpartum shrinkage of the uterus.
c. labor contractions.
d. colostrum secretion.
e. milk secretion.

e

Thinning of the cervical tissue during first-stage labor is called
a. dilation.
b. episiotomy.
c. crowning.
d. involution.
e. effacement.

c

In a woman who is neither pregnant nor nursing, milk secretion is inhibited by
a. colostrum.
b. prolactin.
c. prolactin-inhibiting factor.
d. progesterone.
e. oxytocin.

surfactant

Respiratory distress syndrome results from a deficiency of pulmonary _____ in the lungs of a premature infant.

vertex

The normal head-down position of a full-term fetus is called the _____ position.

ductus arterious

Most fetal blood in the pulmonary trunk follows a shunt to the aorta called the ____ instead of circulating through the lungs.

chorionic villi

A conceptus is anchored to the endometrium by root-like outgrowths of the syncytiotrophoblast called _____.

trophoblast

For the first 8 weeks after ovulation, a conceptus depends primarily on _____ nutrition.

embryo

When the three primary germ layers have formed, an individual is at a stage of development called the _____.

zygote

A fertilized egg is called a/an _____ when chromosomes of both parents have mingled to form a diploid set.

congenital anomaly

Any abnormality present at birth is called a _____.

True

The transition from trophoblastic to placental nutrition depends on an increase in placental conductivity.

True

Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa are incapable of fertilizing an egg.

True

Immaturity of the liver is a factor in the edema of premature infants.

l. telomeres

"Caps" that sterilize the ends of each chromosome

b. rosacea

Visible networks of dilated blood capillaries, especially common on the face

m. integumentary

Organ system directly affected by photoaging

p. nondisjunction

Failure of two homologous chromosomes to separate in meiosis

s. teratogen

Any agent that causes anatomical birth defects

y. blastomeres

Cells produced by cleavage of the zygote

t. fast and slow block

Process that prevents too many sperm from fertilizing one egg

a. acrosin

Enzyme that facilitates fertilization

k. capacitation

Process by which spermatozoa become capable of fertilizing an egg

u. turner syndrome

Results from an XO condition in the zygote

a

Most fetal blood bypasses the liver by way of a shunt called
a. the ductus venosus.
b. the ductus arteriosus.
c. the foramen ovale.
d. the umbilical vein.
e. the fossa ovalis.

c

At 5 months gestation, a fetus is covered with a cheesy sebaceous secretion called
a. meconium.
b. lanugo.
c. vernix casecosa.
d. morula.
e. uterine milk.

c

Which of these lists the stages of prenatal development in correct order?
a. cleavage, zygote, morula, trophoblast, embryo, fetus
b. zygote, morula, cleavage, embryo, trophoblast, fetus
c. zygote, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, embryo, fetus
d. zygote, embryo, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, fetus
e. embryo, zygote, cleavage, morula, trophoblast, fetus

d

The proportion of sperm in the vagina that make it to the immediate vicinity of an egg is
a. 83% to 88%.
b. 60% to 62%.
c. 0.1% to 1%.
d. 1 in 100,000.
e. 1 in 1,000,000.

b

The digital rays of a fetus give rise to
a. arms and legs.
b. fingers and toes.
c. ribs and intercostal muscles.
d. extensor digitorum muscles.
e. radial muscles of the iris.

d

The round ligament of an adult liver is a remnant of the _____ of the fetus.
a. allantois
b. falciform ligament
c. medial umbilical ligament
d. umbilical vein
e. ductus venosus

a

A teratogen is most likely to cause
a. a malformed head.
b. aneuploidy.
c. childhood cancer.
d. nondisjunction.
e. trisomy-21.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set