The process by which individuals develop either malelike or femalelike bodies and behavior.
The process by which the decision is made for a fetus to develop as a male or female.
The undifferentiated gonads of the early mammalian fetus, which will eventually develop into either testes or ovaries.
A gene on the Y chromosome that directs the developing gonads to become testes. The name SRY comes from Sex-determining Region of the Y Chromosome.
A duct system in the embryo that will develop into male structures (the epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles) if the testes are present in the embryo.
A duct system in the embryo that will develop into female reproductive structures (fallopian tubes, uterus, and upper vag) if testes are not present.
Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)
Also called mullerian regression hormone. A protein hormone secreted by the fetal testis that inhibits mullerian duct development.
The 5 alpha-reduced metabolite of testosterone; a potent androgen that is principally responsible for the masculinization of the external genitalia in mammalian sexual differentiation.
An enzyme that converts testosterone into DHT.
A condition seen in individuals carrying a single X chromosome but no other sex chromosome.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
Any of several genetic mutations that can result in exposure of a female fetus to adrenal androgens, which results in a clitoris that is larger than normal at birth.
Referring to an individual with atypical genital development and sexual differentiation that generally resembles a form intermediate between typical male and typical female genitals.
A rare medical condition in which XY individuals are born completely lacking a penis.
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
A syndrome caused by a mutation of the androgen receptor gene that renders tissues insensitive to androgenic hormones like testosterone. Affected XY individuals are phenotypic females, but they have internal testes and regressed internal genital structures.
A permanent alteration of the nervous system, and thus permanent change in behavior, resulting from the action of a steroid hormone on an animal early in its development.
The period during development in which an organism can be permanently altered by a particular experience or treatment.
The chemical reaction that converts testosterone to estradiol, and other androgens to other estrogens.
An enzyme that converts many androgens into estrogens.
The hypothesis that testicular androgens enter the brain and are converted there into estrogens to masculinize the developing nervous system of some rodents.
A protein found in the plasma of fetuses. In rodents, alpha-fetoprotein binds estrogens and prevents them from entering the brain.
The condition in which males and females show pronounced sex differences in appearance.
Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of the Pre-Optic Area (SDN-POA)
A region of the pre-optic area that is five to six times larger in volume in male rats than in females.
Literally "eggs at 12" (in spanish). A nickname for individuals who are raised as girls but at puberty change appearance and begin behaving as boys.