Capítulo 3 -- Expresiones Comparativas Y Superlativas

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Chapter 3 -- Comparative and Superlative Expressions

A) Comparisons De Desigualdad

A) Comparisons Of Inequality

A) Comparative statements compare two people or things in regard to a particular quality. Use the following two constructions:

...

adjective
más / menos + adj / adv / noun + que

more/less + adj / adv / noun + than

verb + más / menos que

verb + more / less than

Adjective:
Viajar en mircobús es más cómodo que viajar en camión.

Traveling by microbus is more comfortable than traveling by truck.

Adverb:
En general, el tren llega más puntualmente que el ferry.

Generally, the train arrives more punctually than the ferry.

Noun:
En el D.F. hay más taxis que camiones.

In the D.F. there are more taxis than trucks.

Verb:
Los taxistas trabajan más que los camioneros.

Taxi drivers work more than truck drivers.

1) In comparative statements referring to numerical quantities, use más / menos de instead of más / menos que

...

Hay más de 500 ruinas en Palenque.

There are more than 500 ruins in Palenque.

El viaje durómenos de dos horas.

The trip lasted less than two hours.

2) In Spanish, a few adjectivices have irregular comparative forms

...

Adjective Form

...

bueno(a)

good

malo(a)

bad

joven

young

viejo(a)

old

Comparative Form

...

mejor(es)

better

peor(es)

worse

menor(es)

younger

mayor(es)

older

Los precios son mejores si tu estadía incluye un fin de semana.

The prices are better if your stay includes a weekend.

Es peor perder el vuelo que llegar con dos horas de anticipación.

It's worse to miss a flight than to arrive two hours early.

B) Comparaciones De Igualdad

B) Comparisons Of Equality

1) to make comarisons of equality, us tan (as) before an adjective or an adverb and como (as) after it

...

tan + adj / adv + como

as + adj / adv + as

Ella va al zoológico tan frecuentemente como su amiga.

She goes to the zoo as frequently as her friend.

2) use tanto / tanta (as much) or tantos / tantas (as many) before a noun, and como (as) after it. Use tanto como (as much as) after a verb.

...

tanto(a) + singular noun + como

as much + singular noun + as

tantos(as) + plural noun + como

as many + singular noun + as

verb + tanto como

verb + as much as

¿Hay tantas ruinas Coba como en Tulum?

Are there as many ruins in Coba as in Tulum?

Vas de vacaciones tanto como you.

You go on vacation as much as I do.

C) Formas Superlativas

C) Forming Superlatives

1) Superlative statements express the highest or lowest degree of a particular quality and always in relations to a group of people or things. In spanish, superlative statements include a form of the definite article (el, la, los, las) and use the preopsition de to specify the group to which the statement refers

...

definite article + noun + más / menos + adjective + de

...

Es el templo más alto de todos.

It is the highest temple of all.

Es el hostal menos cómodo de la ciudad.

It's the least comfortable hostel in the city.

2) Adjectives with irregular comparative forms also have irregular superlative forms

...

Adjective Form

...

bueno(a)

good

malo(a)

bad

joven

young

viejo(a)

old

Superlative Form

...

el / la / los / las mejor(es)

the best

el / la / los / las peor(es)

the worst

el / la / los / las menor(es)

the youngest

el / la / los / las mayor(es)

the oldest

Es el mejor ejemplo de arquitectura maya de la región.

It is the best example of Mayan architecture in the region.

3) To indicate the highest degree of a quality, Spanish speakers will either use an adverb (muy, sumamente) before the adjective or add the suffix -ísimo (-a, -os, -as) to the adjective itself. This is called the Absolute Superlative. If the adjective ends in -o or -a, these letters are dropped before the suffix -ísimo is added.

...

El viaje a Chichén Itzá es sumamente divertido.

The trip to Chichén Itzá is very fun.

El viaje a Chichén Itzá es divertidísimo.

The trip to Chichén Itzá is very fun.

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