The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings.
Contains the combined portions of the planet in which all of life exists, including land, water, and air (atmosphere)
Group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
Assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area.
A collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place together with their nonliving, or physical, environment.
Group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities.
Organisms that capture energy from the sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce it's own food from inorganic materials.
Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds.
Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates.
Organism that relies on other organisms for their energy and food supply.
Heterotrophic organism that feeds on other organisms in a food chain
Obtains energy by eating only plants.
Eats both plants and animals.
Feeds on plants and animal remains (dead matter)
Breaks down organic matter.
A series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
Network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
Each step in a food chain or food web.
Diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.
The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.
Process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
The process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas.
Loss of water from a plant through it's leaves.
All the chemical substances that an organism needs to sustain life.
Process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia.
Conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas.
The rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem.
Single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem.
An immediate increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient.